PROJECT SCOPE MANAGEMENT
Project Scope Management
The term “scope” refers to:
This includes work to deliver a project’s product/service with
specific features and
functions. The result can be a single product or you can have
several components. The
features, functions, and characteristics to be included in a
product are measured against set
product requirements and are managed throughout the lifecycle.
Project scope refers to the work that must be done in order to
deliver a product, service,
result with specified features and functions. Project scope has
a start and end date, possesses
unique characteristics or attributes, and produces specific
results during the lifecycle.
27.2 PROJECT SCOPE MANAGEMENT:
Scope management is concerned with defining and controlling the
scope of a project. It includes
product description, any known constraints and assumptions.
Project scope is defined in project
charter. It serves as a basis for development of Work Breakdown
Structure (WBS). It must be
verified and controlled throughout the life of the project.
Project scope management includes the processes required to
ensure that the project includes all
the work required to complete the project successfully. It is
primarily concerned with defining
and controlling what is or is not included in project.
Scope Management Process
The scope management process comprises of the following:
initiation: Approve Business case, feasibility, budget
- Scope planning:
definition: Create scope components, scope divide work
verification: Get approval from all stakeholders
- Scope change
control: Manage scope change requests
27.2.1 Initiation Phase:
As described in the previous lecture, it is the process of
formally recognizing that a new
project exists or that an existing project should continue into
its next phase
27.2.2 Project Scope Planning:
It refers to creating a project scope management plan that
documents how project scope
will be defined, verified, controlled and how the Work Breakdown
will be created and defined.
Process of developing a written scope statement as the basis for
future project decisions
including, in particular, the criteria used to determine, if the
project phase completed
126.96.36.199 Applying the Process Model:
1. Define Scope:
It is always essential to know what the goals of the project
This needs to be defined in exact and quantitative terms:
o What the
project is supposed to achieve
o What the
project is not supposed to achieve
This is achieved through the definition and management of the
2. Identify Project Environment and Characteristics:
Identify what processes are already in place. If process is
fundamental to achieving organization’s goals? Is there high
risk involved in business? What the problem areas are? Also
what type of an organizational culture exists (is it easily
adaptable or adverse to change)? Lastly, identify what the
3. Solicit Inputs:
The requirements for project are a major driver. The affected
parties should be involved in the process. These people ensure
resulting processes are:
a) Feasible /useful
b) Possible, including feedback of previous projects
4. Select Processes, Activities and Tasks:
Identify and prioritize processes or parts of process within the
standards that will be implemented. It is useful to include
“mapping current processes” practices and/or methods to
processes activities and tasks. Mapping must be used to verify
and to identify gaps between the
5. Document Decisions and Rationale:
Document refers to the mapping of defined processes, activities
and tasks to determine relationships and reasons for adopting
this approach. This document should be included into the
Project Management Plan”.
27.2.3 Project Scope Definition:
This involves subdividing major project deliverables (as
identified in scope statement)
into smaller, more manageable components.
The benefit of scope definition is to improve accuracy of
estimated cost, time, and
resources. The baseline for performance, measurement and control
is defined. It
facilitates clear responsibility and assignments.
188.8.131.52 Work Breakdown Structure (WBS):
Deliverable oriented grouping of project elements that organizes
defines the scope of the project that work not in Work Breakdown
Structure (WBS) is outside the scope of project.
As with the scope statement, Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is
often used to develop or confirm a common understanding of
Each descending level represents an increasingly detailed
Model Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
A Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is normally presented in chart
form. Each item in it is generally assigned a
known collectively as “code
of accounts”. Items at lowest
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) are known as work
27.2.4 Scope Verification:
It is the process of formalizing acceptance of the project scope
(sponsor, client, customer, etc.).
184.108.40.206 Formal Acceptance:
It is the documentation of the product, project or phase
the client and/or sponsor. It must be prepared and distributed.
acceptance must be conditional, especially at the end of every
27.2.5 Scope Change Control:
It defines procedures by which project scope must be changed. It
tracking systems, and approval levels necessary for authorizing
changes. Scope change
control system should be integrated with overall change control
system. In particular,
with any system in place to control product scope.
Scope change control is concerned with:
- Influencing factors which create scope changes to ensure that
changes are beneficial.
- Determining that a scope change has occurred.
- Managing the actual changes when and if they occur.