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Project Scope Management

27.1 SCOPE:

The term “scope” refers to:

Product Scope:

This includes work to deliver a project’s product/service with specific features and

functions. The result can be a single product or you can have several components. The

features, functions, and characteristics to be included in a product are measured against set

product requirements and are managed throughout the lifecycle.

Project Scope:

Project scope refers to the work that must be done in order to deliver a product, service,

result with specified features and functions. Project scope has a start and end date, possesses

unique characteristics or attributes, and produces specific results during the lifecycle.


Scope management is concerned with defining and controlling the scope of a project. It includes

product description, any known constraints and assumptions. Project scope is defined in project

charter. It serves as a basis for development of Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). It must be

verified and controlled throughout the life of the project.

Project scope management includes the processes required to ensure that the project includes all

the work required to complete the project successfully. It is primarily concerned with defining

and controlling what is or is not included in project.

Scope Management Process

The scope management process comprises of the following:

  • Project initiation: Approve Business case, feasibility, budget
  • Scope planning: Gather requirements
  • Scope definition: Create scope components, scope divide work
  • Scope verification: Get approval from all stakeholders
  • Scope change control: Manage scope change requests

27.2.1 Initiation Phase:

As described in the previous lecture, it is the process of formally recognizing that a new

project exists or that an existing project should continue into its next phase

27.2.2 Project Scope Planning:

It refers to creating a project scope management plan that documents how project scope

will be defined, verified, controlled and how the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)

will be created and defined.

Process of developing a written scope statement as the basis for future project decisions

including, in particular, the criteria used to determine, if the project phase completed

successfully. Applying the Process Model:

1. Define Scope:

It is always essential to know what the goals of the project are.

This needs to be defined in exact and quantitative terms:

o What the project is supposed to achieve

o What the project is not supposed to achieve

This is achieved through the definition and management of the

project scope.

2. Identify Project Environment and Characteristics:

Identify what processes are already in place. If process is

fundamental to achieving organization’s goals? Is there high

risk involved in business? What the problem areas are? Also

what type of an organizational culture exists (is it easily

adaptable or adverse to change)? Lastly, identify what the

requirements are?

3. Solicit Inputs:

The requirements for project are a major driver. The affected

parties should be involved in the process. These people ensure

resulting processes are:

a) Feasible /useful

b) Possible, including feedback of previous projects

4. Select Processes, Activities and Tasks:

Identify and prioritize processes or parts of process within the

standards that will be implemented. It is useful to include

“mapping current processes” practices and/or methods to

processes activities and tasks. Mapping must be used to verify

and to identify gaps between the current situation and target


5. Document Decisions and Rationale:

Document refers to the mapping of defined processes, activities

and tasks to determine relationships and reasons for adopting

this approach. This document should be included into the

Project Management Plan”.

27.2.3 Project Scope Definition:

This involves subdividing major project deliverables (as identified in scope statement)

into smaller, more manageable components.

Figure 27.6: Scope Definition

The benefit of scope definition is to improve accuracy of estimated cost, time, and

resources. The baseline for performance, measurement and control is defined. It

facilitates clear responsibility and assignments. Work Breakdown Structure (WBS):

Deliverable oriented grouping of project elements that organizes and

defines the scope of the project that work not in Work Breakdown

Structure (WBS) is outside the scope of project.

As with the scope statement, Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is

often used to develop or confirm a common understanding of project



Each descending level represents an increasingly detailed description of

project elements.

Model Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)

A Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is normally presented in chart

form. Each item in it is generally assigned a unique identifier often

known collectively as “code of accounts”. Items at lowest level of

Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) are known as work packages.

27.2.4 Scope Verification:

It is the process of formalizing acceptance of the project scope by stakeholders

(sponsor, client, customer, etc.). Formal Acceptance:

It is the documentation of the product, project or phase acceptance by

the client and/or sponsor. It must be prepared and distributed. Such

acceptance must be conditional, especially at the end of every phase.

27.2.5 Scope Change Control:

It defines procedures by which project scope must be changed. It includes paperwork,

tracking systems, and approval levels necessary for authorizing changes. Scope change

control system should be integrated with overall change control system. In particular,

with any system in place to control product scope.

Scope change control is concerned with:

  1. Influencing factors which create scope changes to ensure that changes are beneficial.
  2. Determining that a scope change has occurred.
  3. Managing the actual changes when and if they occur.

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