PROJECT SCOPE MANAGEMENT
Difference between Scope, Objectives and Goals
Difference between Business Case, Project Charter and Scope
Project Scope Management
Scope is what the project contains or delivers. When starting to
plan the scope of the project,
think about the big picture first. At this level it is best to
concentrate on major deliverables and
not get bogged down with detail.
26.1.1: Why is Scope Important?
Scope of a project is the sum total of all of a project’s
products and their requirements
Sometimes the term scope is used to mean the totality of work
needed to complete a
In traditional project management, the tools to describe a
project’s scope (product) are
the product breakdown structure and product descriptions. The
primary tool to describe
a project’s scope is the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS).
Extreme project management advocates the use of user stories,
feature lists and feature
cards to describe a project’s scope (product-deliverable).
If requirements are not completely defined and described and if
there is no effective
change control in a project, scope or requirements creep may
26.2 Difference Between Scope (In/Deferred/Out), Objectives and
Goals and objectives are what the business wants to achieve
through this project. Goals and
objectives define WHY the client wants to undertake the project.
Scope defines the size of the project. Scope can include such
b) Geographic locations
d) Features and functions
Often scope is limited by schedule and budget constraints.
scope will be included in the
current release or stage. Something
delivered in a later release. Something
out of scope
will not be included in the project. It
important to explicitly identify items out of scope to reduce
misunderstandings which can
generate conflict and hard feelings.
26.3 Difference Between Business Case, Project Charter and Scope
A business case
is usually prepared before
project approval. If you are a contractor, your
proposal would be similar a business case.
charter providing the project
manager with formal authorization to proceed with the
project is issued to a team by the project sponsor before the
Project scope document
defines the project scope. It should be
attached to the business case and
to the project charter. The project scope will be refined as you
proceed through the project.
Scope is bound to change, and this is to be expected. As the
detail becomes clearer, more
complications creep in. These are not foreseeable at the start
and hopefully we build in a
contingency for what we cannot see.
26.4 Scope Creep:
Scope creep (also called
requirement creep, feature creep,
project management refers to uncontrolled changes in a project’s scope. This
phenomenon can occur when the scope of a project is not properly
defined, documented, or
controlled. It is generally considered a negative occurrence to
Typically, the scope increase consists of either new products or
new features of already
approved product designs, without corresponding increases in
resources, schedule, or budget.
As a result, the project team risks drifting away from its
original purpose and scope on
unplanned additions, and also because of one’s tendency to focus
on only one dimension of
Therefore, scope creep can also result in a project team
overrunning its original budget and
schedule. As the scope of a project grows, more tasks must be
completed at the same time and
cost frame as original series of project tasks.
Scope creep can be a result of:
- Poor change
- Lack of proper
initial identification of what is required to bring about the project
- Weak project
manager or executive sponsor
communication between parties.
Scope creep is a risk in most projects. Most mega projects fall
victim to scope creep. Scope
creep often results in cost overrun.
26.4.1 Features (Technology) Scope Creep Management:
Features (Technology) Scope Creep Management occurs when the
scope creep is
introduced by technologists adding features not originally
contemplated. It is developed
by technologists, for
features are added to project (IT) by technologists causing
Customer-pleasing scope creep
occurs when the desire to please the
additional product features adds more work to the current
project rather than to a new
project proposal. It results from an organization and/or
individual whose ultimate goal
is to please customer while acting reluctant to reject proposed
changes in requirement
Gold-plating scope creep
occurs when technologists augment the
because of a bias toward "technical perfectionism" or because
the initial requirements
were insufficiently clear or detailed. It is different, and is a
result of technologists
adding substance or additions to original requirements, because
of lack of details in
initial business’ requirements.
26.4.2 Scope Management Plan:
It is one of the major scope communication documents. The
Project Scope Management
Plan documents how the project scope will be defined, managed,
and communicated to the project team and stakeholders/customers.
It also includes all
work required to complete the project.
The documents are used to control what is in and out of the
scope of the project by the
use of a Change Management system. Items deemed out of scope go
the change control process and are not automatically added to
the project work items.
The Project Scope Management plan is included in as one of the
sections in the overall
project management plan. It can be very detailed and formal or
loosely framed and
informal depending on the communication needs of the project.
26.5 Project scope management:
Processes used to identify all the work required to successfully
complete the project.
- Scope Planning
- Scope Definition
- Scope Verification
- Scope Change Control
This refers to the features and functions that are to be
included in a product or service.
Successful completion of product scope is measured against the
This refers to the work that must be done to deliver the product
with specified features and
functions. Successful completion of project scope is measures
against the plan.
26.5.1 Scope Initiation:
Formal authority that a project exists and recognizing that it
should continue its next
- Appointment of
- Market research
- Political input
objectives and constraints
- Strategic plan
- Project cost
input to project selection and initiation
220.127.116.11 Project Charter:
The project charter is the document that formally recognizes
existence of a
project. It refers to the business need the project is
addressing. It describes the
products to be delivered. It gives project manager the authority
organizational resources to project activities.
26.5.2 Scope Planning:
It is a written statement that includes:
It refers to the criteria used to determine if the project or
phase has been completed
Scope planning is defining and managing the project scope
influences the project’s
overall success. Each project requires a careful balance of
tools, data sources,
methodologies, processes and procedures, and other factors to
ensure that the effort
expended on scoping activities is commensurate with the
project’s size, complexity, and
18.104.22.168 Scope Management Plan:
The project scope management plan provides guidelines on how
will be defined, documented, verified, managed, and controlled
by the project
Scope management plan describes:
- How scope
changes will be identified and classified.
- How scope
changes will be integrated into the project.
stability of the project.
26.5.3 Scope Definition:
This is where we get down to detail. It provides the detailed
information for the Scope
Plan, often called the
Scope Definition Document.
It provides the basis for estimating
cost, time and resources, performance measurement and
Generally the scope definition document is presented in list
format but development of
the document requires some brainstorming activities that are
best done with the key
stakeholders and the project team involved.
22.214.171.124 Developing Preliminary and Detailed Project Scope
The project scope statement is the definition of the project –
to be accomplished.
project scope statement is
developed from the
information provided by the initiator or sponsor. The project
management team in the scope definition process further refines
preliminary project scope statement into the project scope
The project scope statement content will vary depending upon the
application area and complexity of the project. During
phases of multi-phase projects the Preliminary Project Scope
process validates and refines, if required, the project scope
The preparation of a
detailed project scope statement
is critical to
project success and builds upon the major deliverables,
and constraints that are documented during project initiation in
preliminary project scope statement. During planning, the
is defined and described with greater specificity because more
information about the project is known.
Stakeholder needs, wants, and expectations are analyzed and
into requirements. The assumptions and constraints are analyzed
completeness, with additional assumptions and constraints added
necessary. The project team and other stakeholders, who have
additional insight into the preliminary project scope statement,
perform and prepare the analyses.
Defining what project scope means is critical. We have all been
meetings where two or three people leave with different
the discussion. Creating a project scope statement is a key way
ensure everyone is on the same page. The Project Scope Statement
defines the project scope and what needs to be accomplished to
the project’s objectives.
Value of Sound
With a sound scope statement, one can clearly understand the
project details, deliverables and its boundaries. Product
helps to explain and understand the details for accomplishing
objectives. It is essential to be sensitive to customer’s
assumptions, budgetary restrictions as well as definite
Thus, it is necessary to follow project scope to have concrete
decision making ability during the project. As a result of this,
team involved begins to identify risks and issues that could
any delay in the project. Also, any scope deviations must be
communicated immediately to all stakeholders including
126.96.36.199 Inputs to Defining Project Scope:
The five inputs to defining project scope are:
1. Organizational Process Assets:
Organizational process assets provide information about
standards that the company has already set in place—standards
that are likely to be applied to every project. This information
is re-used when creating the Project Scope Statement.
2. Project Charter:
The project charter authorizes the existence of the project. It
outlines the project objectives, which project managers need to
detail further in the Project Scope Statement.
3. Preliminary Project Scope Statement:
The Preliminary Project Scope Statement provides a
description of the major project deliverables, project
project assumptions, project constraints, and a statement of
4. Project Scope Management Plan:
The Project Scope Management Plan provides a description of
how the stated project objectives will be developed within the
detailed Project Scope Statement.
5. Approved Change Requests:
Change request which are agreed-upon and documented
amendments to project scope. Approved change requests will
ultimately be added to the Project Scope Statement.
188.8.131.52 Outputs to Defining Project Scope:
The project scope statement describes, in detail, the project’s
deliverables and the work required to create those deliverables.
project scope statement also provides a common understanding of
project scope among all project stakeholders and describes the
major objectives. It also enables the project team to perform
detailed planning, guides the project team’s work during
provides the baseline for evaluating whether requests for
additional work are contained within or outside the project’s
1. Scope Statement:
The degree and level of detail to which the project scope
defines what work will be performed and what work is excluded
can determine how well the project management team can control
the overall project scope. Managing the project scope, in turn,
determine how well the project management team can plan,
manage, and control the execution of the project.
The detailed project scope statement includes, either directly
reference to other documents:
objectives include the measurable
success criteria of the project. Projects may have a wide
of business, cost, schedule, technical, and quality objectives.
Project objectives can also include cost, schedule, and quality
It describes the characteristics of the product, service, or
that the project was undertaken to create. These characteristics
will generally have less detail in early phases and more detail
in later phases as the product characteristics are progressively
elaborated. While the form and substance of the characteristics
will vary, the scope description should always provide
sufficient detail to support later project scope planning.
It describes the conditions or capabilities that must be met or
possessed by the deliverables of the project to satisfy a
contract, standard, specification, or other formally imposed
documents. Stakeholder analyses of all stakeholder needs,
wants, and expectations are translated into prioritized
Identifies generally what is included within the project. It
explicitly what is excluded from the project, if a stakeholder
might assume that a particular product, service, or result could
be a component of the project.
Deliverables include both the outputs that comprise the product
or service of the project, as well as ancillary results, such as
project management reports and documentation. Depending on
the project scope statement, the deliverables may be described
at a summary level or in great detail.
It defines the process and criteria for accepting completed
Lists and describes the specific project constraints associated
with the project scope that limits the team’s options. For
example, a predefined budget or any imposed dates (schedule
milestones) that are issued by the customer or performing
organization are included. When a project is performed under
contract, contractual provisions will generally be constraints.
The constraints listed in the detailed project scope statement
are typically more numerous and more detailed than the
constraints listed in the project charter.
Lists and describes the specific project assumptions associated
with the project scope and the potential impact of those
assumptions if they prove to be false. Project teams frequently
identify, document, and validate assumptions as part of their
planning process. The assumptions listed in the detailed project
scope statement are typically more numerous and more detailed
than the assumptions listed in the project charter.
The members of the project team, as well as stakeholders, are
identified. The organization of the project is also documented.
Identifies the known risks.
The customer or performing organization can identify
milestones and can place imposed dates on those schedule
milestones. These dates can be addressed as schedule
Describes any limitation placed upon funding for the project,
whether in total value or over specified time frames.
The project’s cost estimate factors into the project’s expected
overall cost, and is usually preceded by a modifier that
provides some indication of accuracy, such as conceptual or
Configuration Management Requirements:
It describes the level of configuration management and change
control to be implemented on the project.
Identifies those specification documents with which the project
It identifies approval requirements that can be applied to items
such as project objectives, deliverables, documents, and work.
2. Requested Changes:
Requested changes to the project management plan and its
subsidiary plans may be developed during the Scope Definition
process. Requested changes are processed for review and
disposition through the Integrated Change Control process.
3. Project Scope Management Plan (Updates):
The project scope management plan component of the project
management plan may need to be updated to include approved
change requests resulting from the project’s Scope Definition
26.5.4 Scope Verification:
This process is carried out whenever one or more deliverables
are ready to be handed
over. It consists of obtaining the stakeholders’ formal
acceptance of the work
Verifying the project scope includes reviewing deliverables to
ensure that each is
completed satisfactorily. If the project is terminated early,
the project scope verification
process should establish and document the level and extent of
verification differs from quality control in that scope
verification is primarily concerned
with acceptance of the deliverables, while quality control is
primarily concerned with
meeting the quality requirements specified for the deliverables.
Quality control is
generally performed before scope verification, but these two
processes can be
performed in parallel.
26.5.5 Scope Change Control:
The scope changes that usually cause problems are those where
the perception of what
was in and out of scope was different between various parties.
The Project Manager
assumed there would only be four or five reports, and the
business assumed ten to
twenty. Nobody felt it was worth talking about because they
assumed the other person
thought the same way they did.
The scope management section of the project plan is a formalized
captures the processes for handling Scope Changes. The last
output of scope
management is that of
The project manager should implement a
process to ensure the project’s goals and objectives will be
monitored throughout the
The project manager must be made aware of any discrepancies of
project activities or
potential risks promptly that deviate from the baseline or work
breakdown schedule, in
order to minimize any delays to the schedule which can
ultimately cause project failure.
It is the project manager’s responsibility to provide guidance
for any corrective action
and means of communications to all team members involved at any
level of the project.
With adequate scope control mechanisms executed, the team’s
performance can be measured. This will resolve any potential
issues to the schedule and
decrease resource conflicts.
Project scope control is concerned with influencing the factors
that create project scope
changes and controlling the impact of those changes. Scope
control assures all
requested changes and recommended corrective actions are
processed through the
project Integrated Change Control process.
Project scope control is also used to manage the actual changes
when they occur and is
integrated with the other control processes. Uncontrolled
changes are often referred to
as project scope creep. Change is inevitable, thereby mandating
some type of change
(as already discussed) is a term which refers to the creeping forward of the
scope of a project. It sometimes causes cost overrun. It is a
term which refers to the
incremental expansion of the scope of a project, which may
include and introduce more
requirements that may not have been a part of the initial
planning of the project.
There are two distinct ways to separate scope creep management,
the first is business
scope creep, and the second is called features (also technology)
scope creep. The type
of scope creep management is nearly always dependent upon on the
people who create
Business scope creep management
occurs when decisions that are made with
to a project are designed to solve or meet the requirements and
needs of the business.
Business scope creep changes may be a result of poor
requirements definition early in
development, or the failure to include the users of the project
until the later stage of the
systems development life cycle.
The type of scope creep management is always dependent upon on
the people who
create the changes.
Scope creep management is significant in many organizations all
around the world, as
many projects that an organization will set out on have a
project scope. Since projects
are expected to have strict deadlines with time, budget and
quality restraints, the effect
of a change in the scope can ultimately affect the success of
If the approved change requests have an effect upon the project
scope, then the project
scope statement is revised and reissued to reflect the approved
changes. The updated
project scope statement becomes the new project scope baseline
for future changes.
management plan is a formal
document that explains how the project scope
will be managed and how scope changes will be factored into the
Once the scope is developed, the elements are thoroughly
discussed and agreed on by
the project team, stakeholders, sponsors and customers. Then
scope definition is signedoff
formally and the changes are discussed thoroughly by the project
“acceptance/signed scope approval” project manager responds to
ensure complete and
monitored processing. Also, the customers are being noticed for
every change to avoid
project creep and risks.