PROJECT MANAGEMENT THROUGH LEADERSHIP
Leadership grid & managerial grid
Leadership is a process of getting things done through people.
The quarterback moves the team toward a
touchdown. The senior patrol leader guides the troop to a high
rating at the camporee. The mayor gets
the people to support new policies to make the city better.
These leaders are getting things done by
working through people -- football players, Scouts, and ordinary
citizens. They have used the process of
leadership to reach certain goals.
Leadership is not a science. So being a leader is an adventure
because you can never be sure whether
you will reach your goal -- at least this time. The touchdown
drive may end in a fumble. The troop may
have a bad weekend during the camporee. Or the city's citizens
may not be convinced that the mayor's
policies are right. So these leaders have to try again, using
other methods. But they still use the same
process of good leadership.
Leadership means responsibility. It's adventure and often fun,
but it always means responsibility. The
leader is the guy the others look to to get the job done. So
don't think your job as a troop leader or a staff
member will be just an honor. It's more than that. It means that
the other Scouts expect you to take the
responsibility of getting the job done. If you lead, they will
do the job. If you don't, they may expect you
to do the job all by yourself.
That's why it's important that you begin right now to learn what
leadership is all about.
Wear your badge of office proudly. It does not automatically
make you a good leader. But it identifies
you as a Scout who others want to follow -- if you'll let them
by showing leadership.
You are not a finished leader. No one ever is, not even a
president or prime minister. But you are an
explorer of the human mind because now you are going to try to
learn how to get things done through
people. This is one of the keys to leadership.
You are searching for the secrets of leadership. Many of them
lie locked inside you. As you discover
them and practice them, you will join a special group of
Good exploring -- both in this handbook and with the groups you
will have a chance to lead.
The Tasks of Leadership
In this section, we will consider several common statements
about the people who serve in leadership
positions throughout our world. After you have read the
statement, decide for yourself whether you feel
it is true or false and why you think it is.
Here is the first one. True or false?
The only people who lead have some kind of leadership job, such
as chairman, coach, or king.
Do you think that's true? Don't you believe it. It's true that
chairmen, coaches, and kings lead, but people
who hold no leadership position also lead. And you can find some
people who have a leader's title and
ought to lead. But they don't.
In other words, you are not a leader because you wear the
leader's hat or because you wear the patrol
leader's insignia on your uniform. You are a leader only when
you are getting things done through other
Leadership, then, is something people do. Some people inherit
leadership positions, such as kings, or
nobles, or heads of family businesses. Some are elected:
chairman, governor, patrol leader. Some are
appointed, such as a coach, a city manager, or a den chief. Or
they may just happen to be there when a
situation arises that demands leadership. A disaster occurs, or
a teacher doesn't show up when class
begins, or a patrol leader becomes sick on a campout.
Try this statement. Is it true or false?
Leadership is a gift. If you are born with it, you can lead. If
you are not, you can't.
Some people will tell you that. Some really believe it. But it's
Leadership does take skill. Not everyone can learn all the
skills of leadership as well as anyone else. But
most people can learn some of them -- and thus develop their own
You don't have to be born with leadership. Chances are, you
weren't. But you were born with a brain. If
you can learn to swim or play checkers or do math, you can learn
How about this statement. True or false?
"Leader" is another word for "boss."
Well, what do you mean by "boss"? A guy who pushes and orders
other people around? No, a leader is
not one of those. (But some people try to lead this way.)
Or do you mean a boss is somebody who has a job to do and works
with other people to get it done?
This is true. A leader is a boss in that sense.
True or false?
Being a leader in a Scout troop is like being a leader anywhere
This one is true. When you lead in a Scout troop, you will do
many of the same things as any leader
The important thing now is Scouting gives you a chance to lead.
You can learn how
to lead in Scouting.
You can practice leadership in Scouting. Then you can lead other
groups, too. The skills you will need
are very much the same.
What does a leader deal with?
Every leader deals with just two things. Here they are: the
is what's to be done. The "job" doesn't necessarily mean work. It could be
playing a game. It
could be building a skyscraper. It could be getting across an
A leader is needed to get the job done. If there were no job,
there would be no need for a leader.
such as a patrol, is the people who do
the job. And in many cases, the group continues after
the job is done. This is where leading gets tough, as you'll see
Think about this situation. Mark has a lot of firewood to split.
There he is, all alone with his ax. He's got
a job to do. Is he a leader?
We have to say in this situation that Mark won't be leading.
Why? No group. There's nobody on the job
Here's another example. Danny and three of his friends are on
their bikes. They have no place to go.
They're just riding slowly, seeing how close they can get to
Is Danny -- or any one of the others -- a leader?
From what we know, we have to say no. Why? No job. There's a
group of friends, but nothing special to
be done. You don't need a leader for that. (You don't need a
The Job of a Leader
A leader works with two things: a job and a group. You can
always tell when a leader succeeds,
1. The job gets done.
2. The group holds together.
Let's see why it takes both.
Frank was elected patrol leader. That same week, the patrol had
a job cleaning up an old cemetery.
It was Frank's first leadership position, and he wanted it to go
right. In his daydream he could see the
Scoutmaster praising him for the great cleanup job. So, when
Saturday morning came, Frank and the
patrol went over to the cemetery, and Frank started to get the
He hollered. He yelled. He threatened. He called them names. He
worked like a tiger himself. It was a
rough day, but the cemetery got cleaned up.
Frank went home sort of proud, sort of mad, and very tired.
"How'd things go, Frank?" the Scoutmaster asked a few days
"No." Frank wondered what he meant by that.
"Oh! Well, a couple of the boys in your patrol asked me if they
could change to another patrol. I thought
maybe something had gone wrong...."
And that was how Frank learned that getting the job done isn't
all there is to leadership. He had really
given the group a hard time, and now they wanted to break up.
Almost anybody with a whip and a mean temper can get a job done.
But in doing it, they usually destroy
the group. And that's not leadership. The group must go on.
Another new patrol leader called a meeting at his house.
Everybody seemed to be hungry when they
came. So they got some snacks from the kitchen. Then they tossed
a football around. It began to get
dark, and one by one they went home. Everybody had fun. But the
patrol meeting -- the job -- never
One of the following statements is the message of this section.
a. Nice guys finish last.
b. Mean guys finish last.
c. Leaders get the job done and keep the group going.
d. Leaders have a special title or badge that makes others like
We'll take the third one. Will you?
What affects leadership?
Leadership is not magic that comes out of a leader's head. It's
skill. The leader learns how to get the job
done and still keep the group together.
Does this mean that the leader does the same things in every
situation? No. Here's why.
Leadership differs with the
and the situation.
-- like other people are all different. No leader can take over another leader's
job and do it the
are different, too. A great football coach might have difficulty leading an
orchestra. A good
sergeant might be a poor Scoutmaster. So when a leader changes
groups, he changes the way he leads.
differ, too. The same leader with the
same group must change with conditions. A fellow
leading a group discussion needs to change his style of
leadership when a fire breaks out. As a Scout
leader, you probably can't lead the group in the rain the same
as you do in the sunshine.
An effective leader, then, must be alert at all times to the
reaction of the members of the group; the
conditions in which he may find himself; and be aware of his own
abilities and reactions.
Picture a long scale like a yardstick. On the low end, there are
no leadership skills. On the other end,
there is a complete set of leadership skills.
Everyone is somewhere between those ends!
Where do you find yourself at this time? Unknowingly, you may be
further up the scale than you
realize. As a staff member you'll now have the opportunity to
Ten Characteristics of a Leader
After some years of carefully considering Greenleaf's original
writings, I have identified a set of ten
characteristics of the leader that I view as being of critical
importance--central to the development of
leaders. My own work currently involves a deepening
understanding of the following characteristics
and how they contribute to the meaningful practice of
leadership. These ten characteristics include:
Leaders have traditionally been valued for their communication and
Although these are also important skills for the leader, they
need to be reinforced by a deep commitment
to listening intently to others. The leader seeks to identify
the will of a group and helps to clarify that
will. He or she listens receptively to what is being said and
unsaid. Listening also encompasses getting
in touch with one's own inner voice. Listening, coupled with
periods of reflection, are essential to the
growth and well-being of the leader.
leader strives to understand and empathize with others. People need to be
recognized for their special and unique spirits. One assumes the
good intentions of co-workers and
colleagues and does not reject them as people, even when one may
be forced to refuse to accept certain
behaviors or performance. The most successful leaders are those
who have become skilled empathetic
healing of relationships is a powerful force for transformation and integration.
One of the
great strengths of leadership is the potential for healing one's
self and one's relationship to others. Many
people have broken spirits and have suffered from a variety of
emotional hurts. Although this is a part
of being human, leaders recognize that they have an opportunity
to help make whole
those with whom
they come in contact. In his essay,
The Servant as Leader,
Greenleaf writes, "There is something subtle
communicated to one who is being served and led if, implicit in
the compact between leader and led, is
the understanding that the search for wholeness is something
General awareness, and especially self-awareness, strengthens the leader.
helps one in understanding issues involving ethics, power and
values. It lends itself to being able to
view most situations from a more integrated, holistic position.
As Greenleaf observed: "Awareness is
not a giver of solace--it is just the opposite. It is a
disturber and an awakener. Able leaders are usually
sharply awake and reasonably disturbed. They are not seekers
after solace. They have their own inner
Another characteristic of leaders is a reliance on persuasion, rather than on
authority, in making decisions within an organization. The
leader seeks to convince others, rather than
coerce compliance. This particular element offers one of the
clearest distinctions between the
traditional authoritarian model and that of leadership. The
leader is effective at building consensus
within groups. This emphasis on persuasion over coercion finds
its roots in the beliefs of the Religious
Society of Friends (Quakers)--the denominational body to which
Robert Greenleaf belonged.
Leaders seek to nurture their abilities to
dream great dreams.
The ability to look
at a problem or an organization from a conceptualizing
perspective means that one must think beyond
day-to-day realities. For many leaders, this is a characteristic
that requires discipline and practice. The
traditional leader is consumed by the need to achieve short-term
operational goals. The leader who
wishes to also be a leader must stretch his or her thinking to
encompass broader-based conceptual
thinking. Within organizations, conceptualization is, by its
very nature, the proper role of boards of
trustees or directors. Unfortunately, boards can sometimes
become involved in the day-to-day
operations--something that should always be discouraged--and,
thus, fail to provide the visionary
concept for an institution. Trustees need to be mostly
conceptual in their orientation, staffs need to be
mostly operational in their perspective, and the most effective
executive leaders probably need to
develop both perspectives within themselves. Leaders are called
to seek a delicate balance between
conceptual thinking and a day-to-day operational approach.
Closely related to conceptualization, the ability to foresee the likely outcome
of a situation
is hard to define, but easier to identify. One knows foresight
when one experiences it. Foresight is a
characteristic that enables the leader to understand the lessons
from the past, the realities of the present,
and the likely consequence of a decision for the future. It is
also deeply rooted within the intuitive
mind. Foresight remains a largely unexplored area in leadership
studies, but one most deserving of
Peter Block (author of
The Empowered Manager)
stewardship as "holding something in trust for another." Robert
Greenleaf's view of all institutions was
one in which CEO's, staffs, and trustees all played significant
roles in holding their institutions in trust
for the greater good of society. Leadership, like stewardship,
assumes first and foremost a commitment
to serving the needs of others. It also emphasizes the use of
openness and persuasion, rather than
Commitment to the growth of people:
Leaders believe that people have an intrinsic value beyond
their tangible contributions as workers. As such, the leader is
deeply committed to the growth of each
and every individual within his or her organization. The leader
recognizes the tremendous
responsibility to do everything in his or her power to nurture
the personal and professional growth of
employees and colleagues. In practice, this can include (but is
not limited to) concrete actions such as
making funds available for personal and professional
development, taking a personal interest in the
ideas and suggestions from everyone, encouraging worker
involvement in decisionmaking, and actively
assisting laid-off employees to find other positions.
The leader senses that much has been lost in recent human history as a result of
the shift from local communities to large institutions as the
primary shaper of human lives. This
awareness causes the leader to seek to identify some means for
building community among those who
work within a given institution. Leadership suggests that true
community can be created among those
who work in businesses and other institutions. Greenleaf said,
"All that is needed to rebuild community
as a viable life form for large numbers of people is for enough
leaders to show the way, not by mass
movements, but by each leader demonstrating his or her unlimited
liability for a quite specific
These ten characteristics of leadership are by no means
exhaustive. However, they do serve to
communicate the power and promise that this concept offers to
those who are open to its invitation and
Interest in the meaning and practice of leadership continues to
grow. Hundreds of books, articles, and
papers on the subject have now been published. Many of the
companies named to Fortune
annual listing of "The 100 Best Companies to Work For" espouse
leadership and have integrated it into
their corporate cultures. As more and more organizations and
people have sought to put leadership into
practice, the work of The Greenleaf Center for Leadership, now
in its 36th year, continues to expand in
order to help meet that need.
Leadership characteristics often occur naturally within many
individuals; and, like many natural
tendencies, they can be enhanced through learning and practice.
Leadership offers great hope for the
future in creating better, more caring, institutions.
Leadership vs. Management
What is the difference between management and leadership? It is
a question that has been asked more
than once and also answered in different ways. The biggest
difference between managers and leaders is
the way they motivate the people who work or follow them, and
this sets the tone for most other aspects
of what they do.
Many people, by the way, are both. They have management jobs,
but they realize that you cannot buy
hearts, especially to follow them down a difficult path, and so
act as leaders too.
Managers have subordinates
By definition, managers have subordinates - unless their title
is honorary and given as a mark of
seniority, in which case the title is a misnomer and their power
over others is other than formal
Authoritarian, transactional style
Managers have a position of authority vested in them by the
company, and their subordinates work for
them and largely do as they are told. Management style is
transactional, in that the manager tells the
subordinate what to do, and the subordinate does this not
because they are a blind robot, but because
they have been promised a reward (at minimum their salary) for
Managers are paid to get things done (they are subordinates
too), often within tight constraints of time
and money. They thus naturally pass on this work focus to their
An interesting research finding about managers is that they tend
to come from stable home backgrounds
and led relatively normal and comfortable lives. This leads them
to be relatively risk-averse and they
will seek to avoid conflict where possible. In terms of people,
they generally like to run a 'happy ship'.
Leaders have followers
Leaders do not have subordinates - at least not when they are
leading. Many organizational leaders do
have subordinates, but only because they are also managers. But
when they want to lead, they have to
give up formal authoritarian control, because to lead is to have
followers, and following is always a
Charismatic, transformational style
Telling people what to do does not inspire them to follow you.
You have to appeal to them, showing
how following them will lead to their hearts' desire. They must
want to follow you enough to stop what
they are doing and perhaps walk into danger and situations that
they would not normally consider
Leaders with a stronger charisma find it easier to attract
people to their cause. As a part of their
persuasion they typically promise transformational benefits,
such that their followers will not just
receive extrinsic rewards but will somehow become better people.
Although many leaders have a charismatic style to some extent,
this does not require a loud personality.
They are always good with people, and quiet styles that give
credit to others (and takes blame on
themselves) are very effective at creating the loyalty that
great leaders engender.
Although leaders are good with people, this does not mean they
are friendly with them. In order to keep
the mystique of leadership, they often retain a degree of
separation and aloofness.
This does not mean that leaders do not pay attention to tasks -
in fact they are often very achievementfocused.
What they do realize, however, is the importance of enthusing
others to work towards their
In the same study that showed managers as risk-averse, leaders
appeared as risk-seeking, although they
are not blind thrill-seekers. When pursuing their vision, they
consider it natural to encounter problems
and hurdles that must be overcome along the way. They are thus
comfortable with risk and will see
routes that others avoid as potential opportunities for
advantage and will happily break rules in order to
get things done.
A surprising number of these leaders had some form of handicap
in their lives which they had to
overcome. Some had traumatic childhoods, some had problems such
as dyslexia, others were shorter
than average. This perhaps taught them the independence of mind
that is needed to go out on a limb and
not worry about what others are thinking about you
Manager versus Leader
Both a manager and a leader may know the business well. But the
leader must know it better and in a
different way. S/he must grasp the essential facts and the
underlying forces that determine the past and
present trends in the business, so that s/he can generate a
vision and a strategy to bring about its future.
One telling sign of a good leader is an honest attitude towards
the facts, towards objective truth. A
subjective leader obscures the facts for the sake of narrow
self-interest, partisan interest or prejudice.
Effective leaders continually ask questions, probing all levels
of the organization for information,
testing their own perceptions, and rechecking the facts. They
talk to their constituents. They want to
know what is working and what is not. They keep an open mind for
serendipity to bring them the
knowledge they need to know what is true. An important source of
information for this sort of leader is
knowledge of the failures and mistakes that are being made in
To survive in the twenty-first century, we are going to need a
new generation of leaders — leaders, not
managers. The distinction is an important one. Leaders conquer
the context — the turbulent, ambiguous
surroundings that sometimes seem to conspire against us and will
surely suffocate us if we let them —
while managers surrender to it.
Leaders investigate reality, taking in the pertinent factors and
analyzing them carefully. On this basis
they produce visions, concepts, plans, and programs. Managers
adopt the truth from others and
implement it without probing for the facts that reveal reality.
There is profound difference — a chasm — between leaders and
managers. A good manager does
leader does the right things.
Doing the right things implies a
goal, a direction, an
objective, a vision, a dream, a path, a reach.
Lots of people spend their lives climbing a ladder — and then
they get to the top of the wrong wall.
Most losing organizations are over-managed and under-led. Their
managers accomplish the wrong
things beautifully and efficiently. They climb the wrong wall.
Managing is about efficiency. Leading is about effectiveness.
Managing is about how. Leading is about
what and why. Management is about systems, controls, procedures,
policies, and structure. Leadership
is about trust — about people.
Leadership is about innovating and initiating. Management is
about copying, about managing the status
quo. Leadership is creative, adaptive, and agile. Leadership
looks at the horizon, not just the bottom
Leaders base their vision, their appeal to others, and their
integrity on reality, on the facts, on a careful
estimate of the forces at play, and on the trends and
contradictions. They develop the means for
changing the original balance of forces so that their vision can
A leader is someone who has the capacity to create a compelling
vision that takes people to a new place,
and to translate that vision into action. Leaders draw other
people to them by enrolling them in their
vision. What leaders do is inspire people, empower them.
They pull rather than push. This "pull" style of leadership
attracts and energizes people to enroll in a
vision of the future. It motivates people by helping them
identify with the task and the goal rather than
by rewarding or punishing them.
There is a profound difference between management and
leadership, and both are important "To
manage" means "to bring about, to accomplish, to have charge of
or responsibility for, to conduct."
"Leading" is "influencing, guiding in direction, course, action,
opinion." The distinction is crucial.
Management is…. Leadership is....
Coping with complexity Coping with and promoting change
Planning and Budgeting Setting a Direction
Organizing and Staffing Aligning People
Controlling and Problem Solving Motivating and Inspiring People
Effective Action Meaningful Action
Both are necessary and important.
Managers are people who do things right and leaders are people
who do the right thing. The difference
may be summarized as activities of vision and judgment —
—versus activities of
mastering routines —
The chart below indicates key words that
further make the distinction
between the two functions:
- The manager
administers; the leader innovates.
- The manager is
a copy; the leader is an original.
- The manager
maintains; the leader develops.
- The manager
accepts reality; the leader investigates it.
- The manager
focuses on systems and structure; the leader focuses on people.
- The manager
relies on control; the leader inspires trust.
- The manager has
a short-range view; the leader has a long-range perspective.
- The manager
asks how and when; the leader asks what and why.
- The manager has
his or her eye always on the bottom line; the leader has his or her eye on the horizon.
- The manager
imitates; the leader originates.
- The manager
accepts the status quo; the leader challenges it.
- The manager is
the classic good soldier; the leader is his or her own person.
- The manager
does things right; the leader does the right thing.
The most dramatic differences between leaders and managers are
found at the extremes: poor leaders
are despots, while poor managers are bureaucrats in the worst
sense of the word. Whilst leadership is a
human process and management is a process of resource
allocation, both have their place and managers
must also perform as leaders. All first-class managers turn out
to have quite a lot of leadership ability.
Top Ten Characteristics of a Great Manager
1. Time Management
Supervisory positions can be very stressful and overwhelming
when specific deadlines need to be met.
Leaders need to be able to handle tasks and assignments in a
timely manner. Time is similar to finances
and both need to be budgeted wisely.
2. Communication Skills
Communication is fundamental in any aspect of life, especially
for management teams and among
employee relations. Supervisors need to be capable of
communicating clearly with fellow managers,
employees, other businesses, and customers. Confidence and
personality plays a major role in a
manager's ability to communicate. Managers should be experienced
with speaking both to groups and
3. Conflict Resolution
Conflict occurs just about everyday in personal and career based
environments. Managers need to be
able to listen, identify an issue, agree on the issue, discuss
solutions, agree on the solution, and follow
up. Conflict between employees may cause awkward tension within
the office which can result in
slacking or bitterness. Employees should feel comfortable
approaching managers regarding conflict and
confident that a resolution will be found. Managers will also
need to be able to resolve conflict with
customers when the time arises. Often clients will become
frustrated if something goes wrong and
managers need to be able to handle the situation appropriately.
It's also important for a follow up check
to ensure there are no further problems.
4. Personal Traits
The business industry expects a lot from managers and
personality traits are a major aspect. Managers
need to be creative, adaptable, charismatic, understanding,
confident, mentally stable, tolerate stress
well, great listener, and willingness to learn. Management
positions are not easy to fill because of all the
key qualities necessary and not everyone will possess all of
them. I firmly believe certain personality
traits are one of the most important aspects required to run a
Let's face it, not every manager has previous supervisory
experience. Generally each manager wasn't
immediately promoted to their position and had to climb their
way up the totem pole. Many companies
overlook potential managers because they don't have previous
leadership experience. Experience should
be based off their knowledge of their job title, how many years
they have worked in their field, and
performance appraisals. Experience is something every employer
looks at regardless of what position
and it's important for people to realize sometimes they have to
start lower than expected in order to earn
6. Goal Setting
Goal setting goes hand-in-hand with time management. Managers
need to manage their time wisely and
focus on specific goals. Managers also need to be able to assign
certain tasks to employees by giving
them a goal as well.
Being responsible in the workplace is very important. Managers
need to ensure assignments, tasks, and
deadlines are met. It's also the responsibility of a manager to
hire appropriate people for specific
positions. Managers are expected to be able to handle a lot and
being responsible about every situation
will be beneficial in the end.
Managers need to be well organized for many different reasons
and in many different areas. Keeping a
clean and well organized office will impress others and also
make it easier to work. Managers need to
encourage employees to also keep their personal space clean and
neat. Organizing projects, assignments,
and documents is a great way to find them quickly and with ease.
9. Leadership Skills
Managers are leaders in the workplace and need to possess the
basic skills. Generally managers were
once leaders in other aspects of their life. They might have led
youth groups, school projects, plays, and
other groups. Being able to handle a group of people and lead
them in the right direction is very
10. Objective Views
Managers need to remain objective towards their employees,
fellow managers, customers, and their own
personal work. A manager should not be bias towards a certain
group or person. He/she should always
remain non-judgmental and give everyone a chance to prove
themselves. Having a "favorite" employee
should not happen because it's not fair to other employees.
Managers should also be able to remember
that you should view staff members and customers in a
professional manner rather than as a close
Seven personal qualities found in a good leader
A good leader has an exemplary character. It is of utmost
importance that a leader is trustworthy to lead
others. A leader needs to be trusted and be known to live their
life with honestly and integrity. A good
leader “walks the talk” and in doing so earns the right to have
responsibility for others. True authority is
born from respect for the good character and trustworthiness of
the person who leads.
A good leader is enthusiastic about their work or cause and also
about their role as leader. People will
respond more openly to a person of passion and dedication.
Leaders need to be able to be a source of
inspiration, and be a motivator towards the required action or
cause. Although the responsibilities and
roles of a leader may be different, the leader needs to be seen
to be part of the team working towards the
goal. This kind of leader will not be afraid to roll up their
sleeves and get dirty.
A good leader is confident. In order to lead and set direction a
leader needs to appear confident as a
person and in the leadership role. Such a person inspires
confidence in others and draws out the trust
and best efforts of the team to complete the task well. A leader
who conveys confidence towards the
proposed objective inspires the best effort from team members
A leader also needs to function in an orderly and purposeful
manner in situations of uncertainty. People
look to the leader during times of uncertainty and unfamiliarity
and find reassurance and security when
the leader portrays confidence and a positive demeanor.
Good leaders are tolerant of ambiguity and remain calm, composed
and steadfast to the main purpose.
Storms, emotions, and crises come and go and a good leader takes
these as part of the journey and keeps
a cool head
A good leader, as well as keeping the main goal in focus, is
able to think analytically. Not only does a
good leader view a situation as a whole, but is able to break it
down into sub parts for closer inspection.
While keeping the goal in view, a good leader can break it down
into manageable steps and make
progress towards it
A good leader is committed to excellence. Second best does not
lead to success. The good leader not
only maintains high standards, but also is proactive in raising
the bar in order to achieve excellence in
These seven personal characteristics are foundational to good
leadership. Some characteristics may be
more naturally present in the personality of a leader. However,
each of these characteristics can also be
developed and strengthened. A good leader whether they naturally
possess these qualities or not, will be
diligent to consistently develop and strengthen them in their
42.2 Transformational Leadership
Views of school leadership are changing largely because of
current restructuring initiatives and the
demands of the 90s. Advocates for school reform also usually
advocate altering power relationships.
The problem, explain Douglas Mitchell and Sharon Tucker (1992),
is that we have tended to think of
leadership as the capacity to take charge and get things done.
This view keeps us from focusing on the
importance of teamwork and comprehensive school improvement.
Perhaps it is time, they say, to stop
thinking of leadership as aggressive action and more as a way of
thinking--about ourselves, our jobs,
and the nature of the educational process. Thus, "instructional
leadership" is "out" and "transformational
leadership" is "in."
How has the term "transformational leadership" evolved and what
does it mean?
The idea of transformational leadership was first developed by
James McGregor Burns in 1978 and later
extended by Bernard Bass as well as others. Neither Burns nor
Bass studied schools but rather based
their work on political leaders, Army officers, or business
For example, there has been a shift in businesses away from Type
A to Type Z organizations. Type Z
organizations reduce differences in status between workers and
managers, emphasize participative
decision-making, and are based on a form of "consensual" or
"facilitative" power that is manifested
through other people instead of over other people (Kenneth
Although there have been few studies of such leadership in
schools and the definition of
transformational leadership is still vague, evidence shows that
there are similarities in transformational
leadership whether it is in a school setting or a business
environment (Nancy Hoover and others 1991,
Kenneth Leithwood and Doris Jantzi 1990, Leithwood). "The issue
is more than simply who makes
which decisions," says Richard Sagor (1992). "Rather it is
finding a way to be successful in
collaboratively defining the essential purpose of teaching and
learning and then empowering the entire
school community to become energized and focused. In schools
where such a focus has been achieved,
we found that teaching and learning became transformative for
How does this differ from other school leadership styles?
Instructional leadership encompasses hierarchies and top-down
leadership, where the leader is supposed
to know the best form of instruction and closely monitors
teachers' and students' work. One of the
problems with this, says Mary Poplin (1992), is that great
administrators aren't always great classroom
leaders and vice versa. Another difficulty is that this form of
leadership concentrates on the growth of
students but rarely looks at the growth of teachers. Since she
believes that education now calls on
administrators to be "the servants of collective vision," as
well as "editors, cheerleaders, problem
solvers, and resource finders," instructional leadership, she
declares, has outlived its usefulness.
Transactional leadership is sometimes called bartering. It is
based on an exchange of services (from a
teacher, for instance) for various kinds of rewards (such as a
salary) that the leader controls, at least in
Transactional leadership is often viewed as being complementary
with transformational leadership.
Thomas Sergiovanni (1990) considers transformational leadership
a first stage and central to getting
day-to-day routines carried out. However, Leithwood says it
doesn't stimulate improvement. Mitchell
and Tucker add that transactional leadership works only when
both leaders and followers understand
and are in agreement about which tasks are important.
What are the goals of transformational leadership?
Leithwood finds that transformational leaders pursue three
Helping staff develop and maintain a collaborative, professional
school culture: This means
members often talk, observe, critique, and plan together. Norms
of collective responsibility and
continuous improvement encourage them to teach each other how to
teach better. Transformational
leaders involve staff in collaborative goal setting, reduce
teacher isolation, use bureaucratic mechanisms
to support cultural changes, share leadership with others by
delegating power, and actively
communicate the school's norms and beliefs.
Fostering teacher development
One of Leithwood's studies suggests that teachers' motivation
for development is enhanced when they
internalize goals for professional growth. This process,
Leithwood found, is facilitated when they are
strongly committed to a school mission. When leaders give staff
a role in solving nonroutine school
improvement problems, they should make sure goals are explicit
and ambitious but not unrealistic.
Helping teachers solve problems more effectively
Transformational leadership is valued by some, says Leithwood,
because it stimulates teachers to
engage in new activities and put forth that "extra effort" (see
also Hoover and others, Sergiovanni,
Sagor). Leithwood found that transformational leaders use
practices primarily to help staff members
work smarter, not harder. "These leaders shared a genuine belief
that their staff members as a group
could develop better solutions than the principal could alone,"
What strategies do transformational leaders use?
Here are specific ideas, culled from several sources on
transformational leadership (Sagor, Leithwood,
Leithwood and Jantzi, Poplin):
• Visit each
classroom every day; assist in classrooms; encourage teachers to visit one
• Involve the
whole staff in deliberating on school goals, beliefs, and visions at the
beginning of the
• Help teachers
work smarter by actively seeking different interpretations and checking out
assumptions; place individual problems in the larger perspective
of the whole school; avoid
commitment to preconceived solutions; clarify and summarize at
key points during meetings; and
keep the group on task but do not impose your own perspective.
• Use action
research teams or school improvement teams as a way of sharing power. Give
responsibilities and involve staff in governance functions. For
those not participating, ask them to
be in charge of a committee.
• Find the good
things that are happening and publicly recognize the work of staff and students
have contributed to school improvement. Write private notes to
teachers expressing appreciation for
• Survey the
staff often about their wants and needs. Be receptive to teachers' attitudes and
philosophies. Use active listening and show people you truly
care about them.
• Let teachers
experiment with new ideas. Share and discuss research with them. Propose
for people to think about.
• Bring workshops
to your school where it's comfortable for staff to participate. Get teachers to
their talents with one another. Give a workshop yourself and
share information with staff on
conferences that you attend.
• When hiring new
staff, let them know you want them actively involved in school decision-making;
hire teachers with a commitment to collaboration. Give teachers
the option to transfer if they can't
wholly commit themselves to the school's purposes.
• Have high
expectations for teachers and students, but don't expect 100 percent if you
willing to give the same. Tell teachers you want them to be the
best teachers they possibly can be.
bureaucratic mechanisms to support teachers, such as finding money for a project
time for collaborative planning during the workday. Protect
teachers from the problems of limited
time, excessive paperwork, and demands from other agencies.
• Let teachers
know they are responsible for all students, not just their own classes.
What are the results of this kind of leadership?
Evidence of the effects of transformational leadership,
according to Leithwood, is "uniformly positive."
He cites two findings from his own studies:
Transformational leadership practices have a sizable influence on teacher
relationships exist between aspects of transformational leadership and teachers'
reports of changes in both attitudes toward school improvement
and altered instructional behavior.
Sergiovanni suggests that student achievement can be "remarkably
improved" by such leadership.
Finally, Sagor found that schools where teachers and students
reported a culture conducive to school
success had a transformational leader as its principal.
However, Mitchell and Tucker conclude that transformational
leadership should be seen as only one
part of a balanced approach to creating high performance in
schools. Leithwood agrees: "While most
schools rely on both top-down and facilitative forms of power,
finding the right balance is the problem.
For schools that are restructuring, moving closer to the
facilitative end of the power continuum will
usually solve the problem."
A good Vision serves three important purposes.
“General direction for Change”
People to take action in right direction, even if initial steps are personally
coordinate action of different people, even thousand & thousands of individuals,
remarkably fast & efficient way.
Characteristics of Effective Vision
It conveys a picture of what the future could look like. The vision must be
enough to force people out of their comfort zones. The God we
serve created the universe; He can do
appeals to the long-term interests of most of the organization’s stakeholders.
poor visions tend to ignore the legitimate interests of some
groups, or to exploit other groups.
Good visions are not “pie-in-the-sky” fantasies with no chance of realization.
leaders must be careful not to let a cavalier “all things are
possible with God” attitude to substitute for a
legitimate vision that is, at once, faith-filled yet realistic.
Moreover, good visions will take advantage of
fundamental trends. Finally, to be realistic, the vision should
be linked to the core competencies of the
visions are clear enough to motivate action. They should not be vague or
Good visions must be flexible enough to allow initiative. Bad visions are
specific or do not allow for modification. As the change
proceeds, the vision itself will often change! So
it must be flexible to begin with.
An effective vision can be explained
successfully within five minutes. Unintelligible
visions are ineffective. The trumpet must sound a clear and
compelling call. Vision articulates what is
important, unique & exciting about what organization do. It
guides for decision rules employees make
Vision Statement Encompasses the desired future for your
company. A Vision Statement provides a
basis on which you & your team members can focus & work towards.
Some vision statements look
ahead only a year or two, while other vision statements may look
ahead ten years. Whatever time frame,
a vision statement is essential for giving drives to every
employee in your company. A good vision
should draw up a ‘picture’ of what an individual or a group has
in mind & cause those that read it to
‘see’ the intended outcome.
42.4 The Leadership Grid & the Managerial Grid
Leadership model that focuses on task (production) & employee
(people) orientations of Managers as
well as combinations of concerns between two extremes. Developed
by Robert R. Blake and Jane S.
Mouton, The Leadership Grid provides a framework for
understanding types of leadership. The grid
consists of two behavioral dimensions:
- Concern for
- Concern for
Blake and Mouton characterize five different leadership styles
according to the varying emphasis on
each of these two dimensions (with a range of 1 to 9 on each
continuum), as illustrated in the table
below. They suggest that most effective leadership is
characterized by the combination of high concern
for production with high concern for people.
Developed by the founders of our company, Drs. Robert R. Blake
and Jane S. Mouton, The
below is a very simple framework that elegantly defines seven basic styles that
characterize workplace behavior and the resulting relationships.
The seven managerial Grid styles are
based on how two fundamental concerns (concern for people and
concern for results) are manifested at
varying levels whenever people interact.
Figure 42.1: Managerial Grid
The Seven Managerial Grid Styles:
9,1 Controlling (Direct & Dominate)
I expect results and take control by clearly stating a course of
action. I enforce rules that sustain high
results and do not permit deviation.
1,9 Accommodating (Yield & Comply)
I support results that establish and reinforce harmony. I
generate enthusiasm by focusing on positive and
pleasing aspects of work.
5,5 Status Quo (Balance & Compromise)
I endorse results that are popular but caution against taking
unnecessary risk. I test my opinions with
others involved to assure ongoing acceptability.
1,1 Indifferent (Evade & Elude)
I distance myself from taking active responsibility for results
to avoid getting entangled in problems. If
forced, I take a passive or supportive position.
PAT Paternalistic (Prescribe and Guide)
I provide leadership by defining initiatives for myself and
others. I offer praise and appreciation for
support, and discourage challenges to my thinking.
OPP Opportunistic (Exploit & Manipulate)
I persuade others to support results that offer me private
benefit. If they also benefit, that’s even better in
gaining support. I rely on whatever approach is needed to secure
9,9 Sound (Contribute and Commit)
I initiate team action in a way that invites involvement and
commitment. I explore all facts and
alternative views to reach a shared understanding of the best
Grid Relationship Skills
The Grid theory translates into practical use through Grid style
relationship skills that people experience
day in and day out when they work together. These relationship
skills depict the typical and vital
behaviors for each style that make relationships effective or
ineffective. Some behaviors strengthen and
motivate teams while others obstruct progress.
Learning from experience by anticipating and examining how behavior and actions
Taking action to exercise shared effort, drive, and support for specific
Questioning, seeking information, and testing for understanding
Expressing attitudes, opinions, ideas, and convictions
- Evaluating resources, criteria, and
consequences to reach a decision
- Confronting and working through
disagreements with others toward resolution
Reacting to problems, setbacks, and failure, and understanding how these factors
the ability to move forward
Grid theory makes behaviors as tangible and objective as any
other corporate commodity. By studying
each of the seven Leadership Grid styles and the resulting
relationship skill behaviors, teams can
examine, in objective terms, how behaviors help or hurt them.
They can explore types of critique that
work best for them and why. They can openly discuss how to
improve decision-making and conflict
resolution skills. These and other subjects usually considered
"off limits" in terms of productivity are the
very subjects that usually impede productivity. The Grid
approach makes these subjects not only
"discussable" but measurable in objective terms that generate
empathy, motivation to improve, and
Leaders may be concerned for their people and they also must
also have some concern for the work to
be done. The question is, how much attention to they pay to one
or the other? This is a model defined by
Blake and Mouton in the early 1960s.
Figure 42.2: Leadership Grid
Minimum effort to get the work done. A basically lazy approach
that avoids as much work as possible.
Strong focus on task, but with little concern for people. Focus
on efficiency, including the elimination of
people wherever possible.
Country Club management
Care and concern for the people, with a comfortable and friendly
environment and collegial style. But a
low focus on task may give questionable results.
Middle of the road management
A weak balance of focus on both people and the work. Doing
enough to get things done, but not pushing
the boundaries of what may be possible.
Firing on all cylinders: people are committed to task and leader
is committed to people (as well as task).