Plan of Execution
Information Required for Planning Execution of Projects
Early Stage Documentation by Project Manager
Planning is done to facilitate later accomplishment. Planning
techniques covered here are
intended to smooth the path from idea to accomplishment. Project
planning is a complicated
process to manage project and planning act as map of this
process. Map must have sufficient
detail to determine what must be done next but simple enough
that workers are not lost in welter
Almost all project planning techniques lead to plans that
contain same basic elements. They
differ only in ways they approach process of planning. At its
best, planning is tortuous. It is
iterative process yielding better plans from not-so-good plans,
and iterative process of
improvement seems to take place in fits and starts. Process may
be described formally, but it
does not occur formally. Bits and pieces of plans are developed
by individuals, by formal group
meetings, or by formalized planning teams and then improved by
other individuals, groups, or
teams, and improved again, and again.
15.2 Project Planning:
In order to do successful project management, (whether it is in
response to an in-house project
or a customer request), it must utilize effective planning
techniques. The quantitative and
qualitative tools for project planning must be identified.
Management must make effective
utilization of resources, from a systems point of view.
A systematic plan is required in which the entire company is
considered as one large network
that is further subdivided into smaller ones. This would ensure
effective utilization over several
different types of projects.
In this regard, the first step in total program scheduling is to
understand the project objectives.
These goals may be to:
expertise in a given area
- To become
- To modify an
existing facility for later use
- To keep key
Both implicitly and explicitly, the objectives are generally not
independent and are all
The following four questions must be considered, once the
objectives are clearly defined:
i) Which functional divisions will assume responsibility for
accomplishment of these
objectives and the major-element work requirements?
ii) The required corporate and organizational resources
iii) What are the major elements of the work required to satisfy
the objectives, and how are
these elements interrelated?
iv) What are the information flow requirements for the project?
Both the direct as well as the indirect-labor-charging
organizational units must accomplish
careful planning and analysis, if the project is large and
complex. The project organizational
structure must be designed to fit the project; work plans and
schedules must be established so
that maximum allocation of resources can be made; resource
costing and accounting systems
must be developed; and a management information and reporting
system must be established.
Unless all of the necessary information becomes available at
project initiation effective total
program planning cannot be accomplished. These information
- The statement
of work (SOW)
- The project
- The milestone
- The work
breakdown structure (WBS)
As the name indicates, the statement of work (SOW) is a
narrative description of the work to be
accomplished. It includes the objectives of the project, a brief
description of the work, the
funding constraint if one exists, and the specifications and
schedule. The schedule is a "gross"
schedule and includes such things as the:
- Start date
- End date
- Written reports
Report writing is a specialized area. Written reports should
always be identified so that if
functional input is required, the functional manager will assign
an individual who has writing
skills. It is no secret who would write the report if the line
people did not.
15.3 Planning of Execution:
As described earlier, project planning is a structured sequence
of events that lead to a desired set
A detailed, written,
“Plan of Execution (P of E) ”
for project is drawn up, once
viability has been established and decision to proceed has been
made. This plan must show:
a) Who is to do what
d) Major decisions requirements
It is essential that the project objectives must be clearly tied
to overall mission of the firm.
Senior management defines a firm’s:
- Intent in
- Scope of
- Project desired
In this regard, the Plan of Execution:
- Becomes a
vehicle for communication with all stakeholders
- Becomes a
prerequisite for detailed scheduling of work
documentation for preparation of “cost estimates”
Project management plans are more comprehensive than either
management plans or project
plans. The preparation of plans is a simple, straightforward
approach designed to promote and
ensure comprehensive project planning. The project management
plan is a combination of two
plans that are often prepared separately: the traditional
management plan, which describes
operational management systems and approaches, and the project
plan, which includes the work
breakdown structure (WBS), logic, schedules, and cost estimates.
They reflect awareness that
the people, the system, and the detailed planning are all
critical to project success.
15.4 Information Required From Planning of Execution:
Following information is required:
- Type of project
- Its capacity and location(s)
- Scope of work to be performed
- Preliminary cost estimation
- Site visitation report
- Preliminary schedule of major objectives
- Pertinent contract requirements
- Special design and/or construction requirements
- Climate restrictions
- Environmental study, feasibility study reports, etc
- Proposal document
Following are the basis for Project Manager’s planning endeavors
for planning of execution.
- Proposal (as
modified/amended in negotiation period)
- Contract and
preliminary wok plans (during proposal preparation)
Before Execution Planning, project manager is required to
provide the complete scope
definition of work.
Planning of Execution provide basis to:
b) Detailed cost estimation
c) Control budget
d) Quality and performance assurance program
It leads to develop Work Breakdown Structure and integrates work
schedule costs into trackable
and controllable program. During this phase, performance
baselines are also estimated
during project planning.
15.5 Early Stage Documentation by Project Manager:
1. Coordination Procedure (CP):
Procedures or Job Instructions. It includes administrative procedures in
2. Early Work Schedule (EWS):
- This helps in
tracking activities requiring immediate action.
- Cannot wait for
release of formal schedules.
- Early work
Schedule (EWS) contains:
- Running list of activities started early
- Name of responsible individuals
- Completion date of an activity.
15.5.1 Emphasis Placed on Early Planning:
As we know that planning does not stop with the initial plan. It
is a continuous process
which is fine tuned whenever necessary. Many events can
potentially adversely affect
/disrupt plan targets. In this regard, many a times, corrective
actions will be required to
a) Integrity of schedule
15.6 Example of Building House to Common “Activities in Each
Phase” of Project Planning:
1. Definition Phase:
Problem defined in request document
House need heating, plumbing, lighting, storage etc.
2. Analysis Phase:
Produces functional specifications (deliverable)
Location of ventilators, air conditioner, outlet for phone etc.
3. Design Phase:
System proposed to solve problem
System divided into functional components
Components are interconnected
Expectation: rooms, ventilation, wiring etc.
4. Programming Phase:
Actual work conducted to bring system into being.
Expected: building of house
5. System Test Phase:
Brings pieces together and tests them as whole
House: test plumbing, electricity, roof, etc.
6. Acceptance Phase:
Customer tests complete system for acceptance/ payment
Minor problems are fixed
Major problems require negotiation
Minor problem may include house buyers ask for repairs to
cracked plaster, or outlet
Major problem can be two fireplaces vs. one built.
7. Operations, Installation and Use:
House buyer moves in and lives in house
Problems developed/found upon use are fixed during warranty
Not included in this are: