(SCIENTIFIC AND BUREAUCRATIC)
is divided into three parts:
1. Scientific management
2. Bureaucratic management
3. Administrative management
1. Scientific management:
is defined as the use of the scientific method
to define the “one best way” for a
job to be done.
Frederick W. Taylor is known as the “father”
of scientific management. Taylor’s work at the Bethlehem
Steel companies motivated his interest in improving efficiency.
a. Taylor sought to create a mental revolution among both workers and
managers by defining clear
guidelines for improving production efficiency. He defined four
principles of management.
b. His “pig iron” experiment is probably the most widely cited example
of scientific management. c. Using his principles of scientific management, Taylor was able to
define the one best way for doing
d. Overall, Taylor achieved consistent improvements in productivity in
the range of 200 percent. He
affirmed the role of managers to plan and control and of workers to
perform as they were
Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915)
was the first nationally known management
“Taylorism” or “scientific management” was a major contribution to
business operations as we know them
today. The overview of his studies is given below:
a. Taylor developed scientific management to counter the problem of
soldiering by workers—deliberately working below full capacity.
b. Taylor pioneered the time-and-motion study, where by a work task is
broken down into its various motions, is improved by eliminating
unnecessary motions, and then the motions timed to determine optimal
c. Through his four principles of scientific management, Taylor
scientific study of the task to find the best work method rather than
relying on traditional methods handed down from one worker to another.
d. Taylor successfully implemented his theory at Bethlehem Steel in two
famous studies involving shoveling and pig-iron handling.
e. Although real and imagined abuses or misuses of scientific management
occurred (leading in one instance to a congressional investigation—and
thereby adding to Taylor’s notoriety), Taylor’s strong support of
and his redefining the role of managers remains his primary contribution
to management theory.
Taylor’s Four Principles of Scientific Management:
1. Study each part of the task scientifically,
and develop a best method to perform it.
2. Carefully select workers and train them to perform a task using the
scientifically developed method.
3. Cooperate fully with workers to ensure they use the proper method.
4. Divide work and responsibility so
management is responsible for planning work methods using
scientific principles and workers are responsible for executing the work
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth (1868-1924 and 1878-1972 respectively):
They did studies aimed at eliminating
unnecessary motions and way of reducing task fatigue.
a. They perfected the time-and-motion study techniques first introduced
b. Together they provided the first vocabulary for identifying hand,
body motions used at work—which they called “Therbligs.”
c. Lillian’s doctoral dissertation was published as the book,
The Psychology of
Management, one of the first books published
on the findings of
psychology in the workplace.
d. Frank “proved” the value of motion studies in his own construction
company whose productivity was nearly three times better than his
competitors who used the older work methods.
Henry L. Gantt (1861-1919)
One of Taylor’s closest associates is best
known for his Gantt chart, a graphic aide to planning, scheduling,
and controlling. His other interests included a unique pay incentive
system and the social responsibility of
How Do Today’s Managers Use Scientific Management?
To understand why scientific management was
viewed as such an important development, you need to look
at the times in which Taylor, the Gilbreths, and other scientific
management advocates lived.
1. It was important because it could raise countries’ standards of
living by making workers more
productive and efficient.
2. Also, it’s important to remember that many of the tools and
techniques developed by the scientific
management practitioners are still used in organizations today.
2. Bureaucratic management:
GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE THEORISTS
This group of writers focused on the entire
organization. They’re important for developing more general
theories of what managers do and what constitutes good management
The two most prominent theorists behind the general administrative
approach were Henri Fayol and Max
1. Henri Fayol wrote during the same time period as Frederick Taylor.
Fayol was the managing
director of a large French coal-mining firm.
a. His attention was aimed at the activities of all managers.
b. He described the practice of management as distinct from other
typical business functions.
2. Max Weber (pronounced VAY-BAR) was a German sociologist who wrote in
the early part of the
a. He developed a theory of authority structures and described
organizational activity based on
b. He described the ideal form of organization—the
, defined as a form of organization
marked by division of labor, a clearly defined hierarchy, detailed rules
and regulations, and
Max Weber stated 14
principles of management
(fundamental or universal truths of management
be taught in schools).
It emphasized the need for organizational rationality rather than the
owner’s whims as a means for
determining how work should be divided into individual work positions
and how the work should be
rewarded. Max Weber, the most important early advocate of this approach,
argued that too often
organizational decisions and rewards were made because of who the worker
was (possibly a relative of the
manager) or who the worker knew rather than on the
of the worker. Scientific management
focused on the work or the job and how to do it better. Bureaucratic
management, on the other hand,
focused on how to structure the organization better so that better
overall performance might be achieved.
Max Weber (1864-1920)
well known German sociologist coined the term
“bureaucracy” to apply to the
ideal of large organizations operating on a rational basis. Weber’s
original definition was much different
than the definition of government red tape and bungling usually
associated with the term “bureaucracy”
Characteristics of Weber’s ideal bureaucracy
The major characteristics of Weber’s ideal
a. Specialization of a labor
b. Formalization of rules and procedures
c. Impersonality in application of rules and sanctions
d. Formalization of lines of authority into a hierarchical structure
e. Formalization of the career advancement process to be based on merit
The timing of Weber’s contributions is a little confusing. Although he
was a contemporary of Taylor and
others described as “classical contributors,” Weber’s works weren’t
translated into English until the 1940s.
Weber’s bureaucratic characteristics are still evident in many of
today’s large organizations—even in highly
flexible organizations of talented professionals where some bureaucratic
mechanisms are necessary to
ensure that resources are used
Contribution of the classical viewpoint:
Highlights the need for a scientific approach to
Points out that work methods often can be improved
Identifies a number of important principles that are
useful in running organization efficiently.