CUTTING-EDGE APPROACHES TO Strategic
The most current approaches to looking at
leadership are discussed.
The research we’ve discussed has described transactional leader. What is
the difference between
transactional and transformational leaders?
1. Transactional leaders
are leaders who guide or motivate their followers in
the direction of
established goals by clarifying role and task requirements.
2. Transformational leaders
are leaders who provide individualized
consideration and intellectual
stimulation and possess charisma.
3. Transformational leadership is built on top of transactional
4. The evidence supporting the superiority of transformational
leadership over the transactional
variety is overwhelmingly impressive.
a. Transformational leaders
motivate subordinates to perform at expected
levels by helping them
recognize task responsibilities, identify goals, acquire confidence
about meeting desired
performance levels, and understand how their needs and the rewards that
they desire are linked to
b. Transformational leaders
motivate individuals to perform beyond normal
inspiring subordinates to focus on broader missions that transcend their
own immediate selfinterests,
to concentrate on intrinsic higher-level goals (such as safety and d
security), and to have
confidence in their abilities to achieve the extraordinary missions
articulated by the leadership.
c. Transformational leadership
is not a substitute for transactional
leadership; it is an enhancement.
is the leader’s ability to inspire pride, faith, and
respect; to recognize what is really
important, and to articulate effectively a sense of mission, or vision,
that inspires followers.
1) Charisma was once thought to be an inborn personality trait.
Recent research attempts to identify behaviors which cause people to
view a person as charismatic.
theory is an extension of attribution theory
and suggests that followers make
attributions of heroic or extraordinary leadership abilities when they
observe certain behaviors.
1. Five personal characteristics of charismatic leaders have been
a. Have a vision
b. Are able to articulate that vision
c. Are willing to take risks to achieve that vision
d. Are sensitive to both environmental constraints and follower needs
e. Exhibit behaviors that are out of the ordinary
2. An increasing amount of research shows impressive correlations
between charismatic leadership
and high performance and satisfaction among followers.
3. Most experts think that individuals can be trained to exhibit
4. Charismatic leadership may not always be needed to achieve high
levels of employee performance.
It may be most appropriate when an employee’s job has a lot of
is described as going beyond charisma with the
ability to create and articulate a
realistic, credible, attractive vision of the future for an organization
or organizational unit that grows out of
and improves on the present.
1. If the vision is properly selected and implemented, it can be so
energizing that it incites individuals
to use their skills, talents, and resources to make it happen.
2. A vision differs from other forms of organizational direction in that
it uses compelling imagery,
taps into people’s emotions and energy, and creates the enthusiasm that
people need to bring
energy and commitment to the workplace.
3. The key properties of a vision are that it
has inspirational possibilities that are value centered, are
realizable, have superior imagery, and are well articulated.
4. What skills do visionary leaders have?
a. The ability to explain the vision to others.
b. The ability to express the vision not just verbally but through
c. The ability to extend or apply the vision to different leadership
Another important contemporary issue for leaders is creating a culture
of trust and credibility.
is the degree to which followers perceive
someone as honest, competent, and able to
is the belief in the integrity, character, and
ability of a leader.
3. Research has identified five dimensions that make up the concept of
a. Integrity (honesty and truthfulness)
b. Competence (technical and interpersonal knowledge and skills)
c. Consistency (reliability, predictability, and good judgment in
d. Loyalty (willingness to protect a person, physically and emotionally)
e. Openness (willingness to share ideas and information freely)
4. Given the fact that many organizations have moved to self-managed
work teams, trust is extremely
important because many of the traditional control mechanisms have been
5. How should leaders build trust? Here are eight suggestions.
a. Practice openness.
b. Be fair.
c. Speak your feelings.
d. Tell the truth.
e. Show consistency.
f. Fulfill your promises.
g. Maintain confidences.
h. Demonstrate competence.
As the usage of work teams grows, the role of
team leader becomes increasingly important.
1. The challenge for most managers is learning how to become an
effective team leader.
2. Effective team leaders have mastered the difficult balancing act of
knowing when to leave their
teams alone and when to get involved.
3. There are two priorities for a team leader.
a. Managing the team’s external boundaries
b. Facilitating the team process
4. These priorities can be broken down into four specific leadership
a. Liaisons with external constituencies
c. Conflict managers
Gender and Leadership
The next contemporary leadership issue we want
to discuss is gender and leadership. This topic is one that
still creates controversy! What, if any, differences exist between male
and female leaders and what
implications would these differences have?
1. The evidence generally has found that males and females
different leadership styles.
a. Women tend to adopt a more democratic or participative style and a
less autocratic or directive
style than men do.
b. Women are more likely to encourage participation, share power and
information, and attempt to
enhance followers’ self-worth.
c. Men are more likely to use a directive,
d. Men rely on the formal authority of their position for their
e. Men use transactional leadership, handing out rewards for good work
and punishment for bad.
2. Is different better? The best managers (leaders) listen, motivate,
and provide support to their
people. They inspire and influence rather than control. Generally
speaking, women seem to do
these things better than men.
3. However, gender doesn’t imply destiny. Which leadership style is
effective depends on the
situation. Gender simply provides a behavioral