The concepts of organizations, managers, and
management are explored in this session. Every organization,
regardless of size, type, or location, needs managers who have a variety
of characteristics. Managers may
come from any nationality or be of either gender.
Four questions are addressed:
1. Who are managers?
2. What do managers do?
3. What is management?
4. Why study management?
1. Who are Managers?
“A manager is someone who works with and through other people by
coordinating their work
activities in order to accomplish organizational goals.”
The changing nature of organizations and work
has blurred the clear lines of distinction between managers
and non-managerial employees. Many workers’ jobs now include managerial
activities. Definitions used in
the past may no longer work.
Hence, an organizational member who works
with and through other people
by coordinating their work activities in order to accomplish
organizational goals may be called a manager.
However, keep in mind that managers may have other roles and work duties
not related to integrating the
work of others.
You should be aware that managers may have a variety of titles and
roles. They perform various jobs and
duties and are responsible for higher profits and for great performance.
Managers work in various
departments and are employed by many types of organization.
You will be meeting different managers in this session and note what
jobs, roles and work they perform in
their organizations, may it be national or multi-national or
2. What do managers do?
No two managers’ jobs are alike. But
management writers and researchers have developed some specific
categorization schemes to describe what managers do. We can focus on
while making mind what do managers do:
1. Management functions and management process as detailed below:
Traditionally, a manager’s job has been classified according to the
following four functions i.e.:
determining organizational goals and the means
for achieving them
deciding where decisions will be made, who
will do what jobs and tasks, and who will work
inspiring and motivating workers to work hard
to achieve organizational goals
monitoring progress towards goal achievement
and taking corrective action when needed
Good managers are those who assure
themselves to perform these functions well.
New-style or 21st century managers are
changing the way they perform these functions, thinking of
themselves more like mentors, coaches,
team leaders, or internal
consultants. They work with anyone
who can help them accomplish their goals rather than only following the
chain of command. They ask
others to participate in making decisions and share information with
New-style managers perform four functions that have
evolved out of the traditional functions: making
things happen; meeting the competition; organizing people, projects, and
processes; and leading.
A.Making Things Happen:
To make things happen you must determine what
you want to
accomplish, plan how to achieve these goals, gather and manage the
information needed to
make a good decision, and control
performance, so that you can take corrective action if
performance falls short.
B.Meeting the Competition
Free trade agreements, shorter product
development cycles, and
fewer barriers to entering industries have created increased
competition. Companies must
consider how to deal with international competitors, have a
strategy, be able to embrace change and foster new product and service
ideas, and structure
their organizations to quickly adapt to changing customers and
Projects, and Processes: Changes in how a
company is organized must
people issues and work processes (how
the work gets done)
Motivating and inspiring workers.
Management process is
the set of ongoing decisions and
work activities in which managers
engage as they plan, organize, lead,
2. Managers perform various roles in
3. While performing, variety of management skills are needed and
employed by managers.
4. Regardless of the level the manager is on, he or she must ensure that
the work activities in the part of
the organizational system he or she is responsible for are coordinated
5. Managers must “read” and attempt to interpret the situational
contingencies facing them before
deciding the best way to work with and through others as they coordinate
What is Management
Simply speaking, management is what managers
do. However, this simple statement doesn’t tell us much.
We define management
as the process of coordinating and integrating
work activities so that they are
completed efficiently and effectively with and through other people.
Let’s look at some specific parts of this
The process represents the ongoing functions of primary activities
engaged in by managers. These functions
are typically labeled planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.
Let us remember it by POLCA.
Why Study Management?
Management is important for our society,
industry and government organizations. The importance of
studying management can be explained by looking at the way we interact
with organizations every day in
our lives. Every product we use, every service we receive, and every
action we take is provided or affected
by organizations. These organizations require managers.
Modern management ensures to create competitive advantage through
A. Top-performing companies recognize the importance of the way they
treat their work forces.
B. These companies use ideas such as employee satisfaction, selective
based high wages , reduction of status differences, sharing information,
teams, and training and skill development .
C. Investing in people will create long-lasting competitive advantages
that are difficult for other
companies to duplicate.
D. Sound management practices can produce substantial advantages in
sales, revenues, and
E. Poorly performing companies that adopted management techniques as
simple as setting
expectations, coaching, and rewarding were able to substantially improve
F. Good management can increase customer satisfaction because employees
tend to treat
customers the same way that their managers treat them.
By studying management, students will be able to recognize good
management and encourage it, as well as
to recognize poor management and work to get it corrected.
After graduation, you will either manage or be managed. A course in
management provides insights into the
way your boss or peer behave and shall help you to be familiar with the
internal working of organizations.