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After studying this chapter, students should be able to understand the following:

A. Explain Learning

B. Define Training



We devote this lecture to explaining the learning and its importance in improving status of organization; we

will also explore scope of Training and its relationship to organizational change. Next, the Training process

is described along with how Training needs are determined and objectives established. Then, we look at the

numerous Training methods. Effectiveness of training program depends upon the learning of trainees so

first of all we should see what is meant by learning.

A. Learning

Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior that results from direct or indirect experience.

Learning organization

Learning organizations are firms that recognize the critical importance of continuous performance-related.

Training take appropriate action. They are one whose employees continuously attempt to learn new things

& to use what they learn to improve product or service quality. The most important thing in learning is that

all managers should understand the basic purposes and processes of both Training also recognize the role

of learning theory in Training.

B. Training Defined:

The heart of a continuous effort designed to improve employee competency and organizational

performance. Training typically focuses on providing employees with specific skills or helping them correct

deficiencies in their performance.

I. Challenges in Training

Upgrading employees' performance and improving their skills through training is a necessity in today's

competitive environment. The training process brings with it many questions that managers must answer.

Included in these questions are: Is training the solution to the problems? Are the goals of training clear and

realistic? Is training a good investment? Will the

training work?

• Is Training the Solution?

• Are the Goals Clear and Realistic?

• Is Training a Good Investment?

• Will Training Work?

II. The Training Process

Adjustments in external and internal

environments necessitate change. Once the

need for change is recognized and the factors

that influence intervention are considered, the

process of determining Training needs begins.

Essentially, two questions must be asked: “What

are our Training needs?” and “What do we want

to accomplish through our TRAINING

efforts?” After stating the TRAINING

objectives, management can determine the appropriate methods for accomplishing them. Various methods

and media are available; the selection depends on the nature of TRAINING goals. Naturally, TRAINING

must be continuously evaluated in order to facilitate change and accomplish organizational objectives. Now

we will discuss different phases of training process.

Phases of Training

a. Phase 1: Needs Assessment & Establishing Objectives

In order to compete effectively, firms must keep their employees well trained. The first step in the Training

process is to determine Training needs. The overall purpose of the assessment phase is to determine if

training is needed and, if so, to provide the information required to design the training program.

Assessment consists of three levels of analysis: organizational, task, and person.

Organizational Analysis: It is an examination of the kinds of problems that an organization is

experiencing and where they are located within organization.

Task/Operational Analysis: An operational analysis identifies the kinds of the skills and behaviors

required of the incumbents of a given job and the standards of performance that must be met.

Personal Analysis: The objective of the personnel analysis is to examine how well individual employees are

performing their jobs. Training should be given to those who need it. Assigning all employees to a training

program, regardless of their skill levels, is a waste of organizational resources and create a unpleasant

situation for employees who do not need training.

The objectives of training must be clarified, related to the areas identified in the task analysis, and should be

challenging, precise, achievable, and understood by all.

Mostly when there is a performance gap i.e. the performance is not up to the specified standards training is

required to improve the performance there are certain factors that should be kept in mind before

conducting training ,lets consider these factors:

Number of employees experiencing skill deficiency: Number of employees supposed to be


Severity of skill deficiency: What are the cons or advantages that are being faced by the

organization due to absence of that skill?

Importance of skill: How important is skill to be possessed by workforce.

Extent to which skill can be improved with Training: Would there be real difference in skill

level in case the training program is conducted.

Determining Training Needs:

Following sources can help organization to assess either there is a need for Training or not.

􀁺 Self-assessments

􀁺 Company records

􀁺 Customer complaints

􀁺 New Technology

􀁺 Employee grievances

􀁺 Interviews with managers

􀁺 Customer satisfaction surveys

􀁺 Observation

Establishing Training Objectives

Objectives are desired end results. In human resource, clear and concise objectives must be formulated

b. Phase 2: Delivering the Training

The training program that results from assessment should be a direct response to an organizational problem

or need. Approaches vary by location, presentation, and type. These are summarized below:

1. Location Options

a. On the job: Training is at the actual work site using the actual work equipment

b. Off the job: Training away from the actual work site. Training is at a Training facility designed

specifically for Training

c. Phase 3: Training Methods


The Lecture is an efficient means of transmitting large amounts of factual information to a relatively large

number of people at the same time. It is traditional method of teaching and is used in many training



programs. A skilled lecture can organize material and present it in a clear and understandable way. How ever

a lecture doesn’t allow active participation by learners.

Case method

A Training method in which trainees are expected to study the information provided in the case and make

decisions based on it.


Simulators are training devices of varying degrees of complexity that duplicate the real world. Simulation

refers to creating an artificial learning environment that approximates the actual job conditions as much as



This type of training refers to the process of having new worker, called an apprentice, work alongside and

under the direction of skilled technician.


Internships and assistantships provide training similar to apprenticeship training; however’ assistantships

and internships typically refer to occupations that require a higher level of the formal education than that

required by the skilled trades. Many colleges and universities used to develop agreements with organizations

to provide internships opportunities for students.

Coaching And Mentoring

Some organizations assign an experienced to serve as a mentor for new employees. Effective mentors teach

their protégés job skills, provide emotional support and encouragement. Coaching and mentoring are

primarily on-the-job development approaches emphasizing learning on a one-to-one basis. Coaching is

often considered a responsibility of the immediate boss who has greater experience or expertise and is in the

position to offer sage advice. The same is true with a mentor, but this person may be located elsewhere in

the organization or even in another firm. The relationship may be established formally or it may develop on

an informal basis.


Conferences and group discussions, used extensively for making decisions, can also be used as a form of

training because they provide forums where individuals are able to learn from one another. A major use of

the group discussion is to change attitudes and behaviors.


Simulations that represent actual business situations are referred to as business games. These simulations

attempt to duplicate selected parts of a particular situation, which are then manipulated by the participants

Role playing

A Training method in which participants are required to respond to specific problems they may actually

encounter in their jobs.


Computer based training is a teaching method that takes advantage of the speed, memory, and data

manipulation capabilities of the computer for greater flexibility of instruction.


Multimedia is an application that enhances computer-based learning with audio, animation, graphics, and

interactive video.

Virtual reality

It is a unique computer-based approach that permits trainees to view objects from a perspective otherwise

impractical or impossible.

Video Training

The use of videotapes continues to be a popular Training method. An illustration of the use of videotapes is



provided by behavior modeling. Behavior modeling has long been a successful Training approach that utilizes

videotapes to illustrate effective interpersonal skills and how managers function in various situations.

Vestibule training

Training that takes place away from the production area on equipment that closely resembles the actual

equipment used on the job. Effective training programs are effective only if the trainers re able to effectively

transfer to required knowledge to trainees but there are certain reasons due to which training programs

transferring becomes ineffective. The reasons re as under:

Why Transfer of Training Fails

• Don’t learn material

• Don’t understand “real life” applications

• Lack of confidence

• Forgetting the material

d. Phase 4:Evaluating Training

The credibility of training is greatly enhanced when it can be shown that the organization has benefited

tangibly from such programs. Organizations have taken several approaches in attempting to determine the

worth of specific programs. In this phase, the effectiveness of the training is assessed. Effectiveness can be

measured in monetary or non-monetary terms. It is important that the training be assessed on how well it

addresses the needs it was designed to address.

Participants’ Opinions: Evaluating a training program by asking the participants’ opinions of it is

an inexpensive approach that provides an immediate response and suggestions for improvements.

The basic problem with this type of evaluation is that it is based on opinion rather than fact. In

reality, the trainee may have learned nothing, but perceived that a learning experience occurred.

Extent of Learning: Some organizations administer tests to determine what the participants in

training program have learned. The pretest, posttest, control group design is one evaluation

procedure that may be used.

Behavioral Change: Tests may indicate fairly accurately what has been learned, but they give little

insight into desired behavioral changes.

Accomplishment of Training Objectives: Still another approach to evaluating training programs

involves determining the extent to which stated objectives have been achieved.


Benchmarking utilizes exemplary practices of other organizations to evaluate and improve training

programs. It is estimated that up to 70 percent of American firms engage in some sort of benchmarking.

A Case for Simplicity: Value is the measure of impact and positive change elicited by the training.

The most common approaches used to determine the effectiveness of training programs are as under:

Post Training Performance Method:

In this method the participants’ performance is measured after attending a training program to determine if

behavioral changes have been made.

Pre-Post Test approach:

Most commonly used approach towards measurement of effectiveness of training is Pretest Post test

approach this approach performances the employees is measured prior to training and if required training is

provided. After completion if the training again the performance is measured this is compared with

performance before training if evaluation is positive e.g. increase in productivity that means that training is


Pre- Post Training Performance with control group Method:

Under this evaluation method, two groups are established and evaluated on actual job performance.

Members of the control group work on the job but do not undergo instructions. On the other hand, the

experimental group is given the instructions. At the conclusion of the training, the two groups are

reevaluated. If the training is really effective, the experimental group’s performance will have improved, and

its performance will be substantially better than that of the control group.



Key Terms

Training: The process of teaching new employees the basic skills they need to perform their jobs.

Task analysis: A detailed study of a job to identify the skills required so that an appropriate training

program may be instituted.

Performance analysis: Careful study of performance to identify a deficiency and then correct it with new

equipment, a new employee, a training program, or some other adjustment.

On-the-job training (OJT): Training a person to learn a job while working at it.

Vestibule or simulated: Training employees on special off-the-job equipment, as in

training airplane pilot training, whereby training costs and hazards can be reduced.

Coaching/Mentoring: A method of on-the-job training where an experienced worker, or

Method the trainee’s supervisor trains the employee.

Action Learning: A training technique by which management trainees are allowed to work full-time

analyzing and solving problems in other departments.

Case study method: A development method in which the manager is presented with a written description

of an organizational problem to diagnose and solve.

Business games: A development technique in which teams of managers compete with one another by

making computerized decisions regarding realistic but simulated companies.

Behavior modeling: A training technique in which trainees are first shown good management techniques

in a film, are then asked to play roles in a simulated situation, and are then given feedback and praise by

their supervisor.

Learning organization: An organization skilled at creating, acquiring, and transferring knowledge and at

modifying its behavior to reflect new knowledge and insights.

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