TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
After studying this chapter, students should be able to understand the following:
A. Explain Learning
B. Define Training
We devote this lecture to explaining the learning and its importance in improving
status of organization; we
will also explore scope of Training and its relationship to organizational change.
Next, the Training process
is described along with how Training needs are determined and objectives established.
Then, we look at the
numerous Training methods. Effectiveness of training program depends upon the
learning of trainees so
first of all we should see what is meant by learning.
Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior that results from direct
or indirect experience.
• Learning organization
Learning organizations are firms that recognize the critical importance of continuous
Training take appropriate action. They are one whose employees continuously attempt
to learn new things
& to use what they learn to improve product or service quality. The most important
thing in learning is that
all managers should understand the basic purposes and processes of both Training
also recognize the role
of learning theory in Training.
B. Training Defined:
The heart of a continuous effort designed to improve employee competency and
performance. Training typically focuses on providing employees with specific
skills or helping them correct
deficiencies in their performance.
I. Challenges in Training
Upgrading employees' performance and improving their skills through training
is a necessity in today's
competitive environment. The training process brings with it many questions that
managers must answer.
Included in these questions are: Is training the solution to the problems? Are
the goals of training clear and
realistic? Is training a good investment? Will the
• Is Training the Solution?
• Are the Goals Clear and Realistic?
• Is Training a Good Investment?
• Will Training Work?
II. The Training Process
Adjustments in external and internal
environments necessitate change. Once the
need for change is recognized and the factors
that influence intervention are considered, the
process of determining Training needs begins.
Essentially, two questions must be asked: “What
are our Training needs?” and “What do we want
to accomplish through our TRAINING
efforts?” After stating the TRAINING
objectives, management can determine the appropriate methods for accomplishing
them. Various methods
and media are available; the selection depends on the nature of TRAINING goals.
must be continuously evaluated in order to facilitate change and accomplish organizational
we will discuss different phases of training process.
Phases of Training
a. Phase 1: Needs Assessment & Establishing Objectives
In order to compete effectively, firms must keep their employees well trained.
The first step in the Training
process is to determine Training needs. The overall purpose of the assessment
phase is to determine if
training is needed and, if so, to provide the information required to design
the training program.
Assessment consists of three levels of analysis: organizational, task, and person.
Organizational Analysis: It is an examination of the kinds of problems
that an organization is
experiencing and where they are located within organization.
Task/Operational Analysis: An operational analysis identifies the
kinds of the skills and behaviors
required of the incumbents of a given job and the standards of performance that
must be met.
Personal Analysis: The objective of the personnel analysis is to examine
how well individual employees are
performing their jobs. Training should be given to those who need it. Assigning
all employees to a training
program, regardless of their skill levels, is a waste of organizational resources
and create a unpleasant
situation for employees who do not need training.
The objectives of training must be clarified, related to the areas identified
in the task analysis, and should be
challenging, precise, achievable, and understood by all.
Mostly when there is a performance gap i.e. the performance is not up to the
specified standards training is
required to improve the performance there are certain factors that should be
kept in mind before
conducting training ,lets consider these factors:
• Number of employees experiencing skill deficiency: Number
of employees supposed to be
• Severity of skill deficiency: What are the cons or advantages
that are being faced by the
organization due to absence of that skill?
• Importance of skill: How important is skill to be possessed
• Extent to which skill can be improved with Training: Would
there be real difference in skill
level in case the training program is conducted.
Determining Training Needs:
Following sources can help organization to assess either there is a need for
Training or not.
Interviews with managers
Customer satisfaction surveys
Establishing Training Objectives
Objectives are desired end results. In human resource, clear and concise objectives
must be formulated
b. Phase 2: Delivering the Training
The training program that results from assessment should be a direct response
to an organizational problem
or need. Approaches vary by location, presentation, and type. These are summarized
1. Location Options
a. On the job: Training is at the actual work site using the actual work equipment
b. Off the job: Training away from the actual work site. Training is at a Training
specifically for Training
c. Phase 3: Training Methods
The Lecture is an efficient means of transmitting large amounts of factual information
to a relatively large
number of people at the same time. It is traditional method of teaching and is
used in many training
programs. A skilled lecture can organize material and present it in a clear and
understandable way. How ever
a lecture doesn’t allow active participation by learners.
• Case method
A Training method in which trainees are expected to study the information provided
in the case and make
decisions based on it.
Simulators are training devices of varying degrees of complexity that duplicate
the real world. Simulation
refers to creating an artificial learning environment that approximates the actual
job conditions as much as
This type of training refers to the process of having new worker, called an apprentice,
work alongside and
under the direction of skilled technician.
Internships and assistantships provide training similar to apprenticeship training;
and internships typically refer to occupations that require a higher level of
the formal education than that
required by the skilled trades. Many colleges and universities used to develop
agreements with organizations
to provide internships opportunities for students.
• Coaching And Mentoring
Some organizations assign an experienced to serve as a mentor for new employees.
Effective mentors teach
their protégés job skills, provide emotional support and encouragement. Coaching
and mentoring are
primarily on-the-job development approaches emphasizing learning on a one-to-one
basis. Coaching is
often considered a responsibility of the immediate boss who has greater experience
or expertise and is in the
position to offer sage advice. The same is true with a mentor, but this person
may be located elsewhere in
the organization or even in another firm. The relationship may be established
formally or it may develop on
an informal basis.
Conferences and group discussions, used extensively for making decisions, can
also be used as a form of
training because they provide forums where individuals are able to learn from
one another. A major use of
the group discussion is to change attitudes and behaviors.
Simulations that represent actual business situations are referred to as business
games. These simulations
attempt to duplicate selected parts of a particular situation, which are then
manipulated by the participants
• Role playing
A Training method in which participants are required to respond to specific problems
they may actually
encounter in their jobs.
Computer based training is a teaching method that takes advantage of the speed,
memory, and data
manipulation capabilities of the computer for greater flexibility of instruction.
Multimedia is an application that enhances computer-based learning with audio,
animation, graphics, and
• Virtual reality
It is a unique computer-based approach that permits trainees to view objects
from a perspective otherwise
impractical or impossible.
• Video Training
The use of videotapes continues to be a popular Training method. An illustration
of the use of videotapes is
provided by behavior modeling.
Behavior modeling has long been a successful Training approach that
videotapes to illustrate effective interpersonal skills and how managers function
in various situations.
• Vestibule training
Training that takes place away from the production area on equipment that closely
resembles the actual
equipment used on the job. Effective training programs are effective only if
the trainers re able to effectively
transfer to required knowledge to trainees but there are certain reasons due
to which training programs
transferring becomes ineffective. The reasons re as under:
Why Transfer of Training Fails
• Don’t learn material
• Don’t understand “real life” applications
• Lack of confidence
• Forgetting the material
d. Phase 4:Evaluating Training
The credibility of training is greatly enhanced when it can be shown that the
organization has benefited
tangibly from such programs. Organizations have taken several approaches in attempting
to determine the
worth of specific programs. In this phase, the effectiveness of the training
is assessed. Effectiveness can be
measured in monetary or non-monetary terms. It is important that the training
be assessed on how well it
addresses the needs it was designed to address.
• Participants’ Opinions: Evaluating a training program
by asking the participants’ opinions of it is
an inexpensive approach that provides an immediate response and suggestions for
The basic problem with this type of evaluation is that it is based on opinion
rather than fact. In
reality, the trainee may have learned nothing, but perceived that a learning
• Extent of Learning: Some organizations administer tests
to determine what the participants in
training program have learned. The pretest, posttest, control group design is
procedure that may be used.
• Behavioral Change: Tests may indicate fairly accurately
what has been learned, but they give little
insight into desired behavioral changes.
• Accomplishment of Training Objectives: Still another approach
to evaluating training programs
involves determining the extent to which stated objectives have been achieved.
Benchmarking utilizes exemplary practices of other organizations to evaluate
and improve training
programs. It is estimated that up to 70 percent of American firms engage in some
sort of benchmarking.
• A Case for Simplicity: Value is the measure of impact
and positive change elicited by the training.
The most common approaches used to determine the effectiveness of training programs
are as under:
Post Training Performance Method:
In this method the participants’ performance is measured after attending a training
program to determine if
behavioral changes have been made.
Pre-Post Test approach:
Most commonly used approach towards measurement of effectiveness of training
is Pretest Post test
approach this approach performances the employees is measured prior to training
and if required training is
provided. After completion if the training again the performance is measured
this is compared with
performance before training if evaluation is positive e.g. increase in productivity
that means that training is
Pre- Post Training Performance with control group Method:
Under this evaluation method, two groups are established and evaluated on actual
Members of the control group work on the job but do not undergo instructions.
On the other hand, the
experimental group is given the instructions. At the conclusion of the training,
the two groups are
reevaluated. If the training is really effective, the experimental group’s performance
will have improved, and
its performance will be substantially better than that of the control group.
Training: The process of teaching new employees the basic skills they
need to perform their jobs.
Task analysis: A detailed study of a job to identify the skills required
so that an appropriate training
program may be instituted.
Performance analysis: Careful study of performance to identify a deficiency
and then correct it with new
equipment, a new employee, a training program, or some other adjustment.
On-the-job training (OJT): Training a person to learn a job while
working at it.
Vestibule or simulated: Training employees on special off-the-job
equipment, as in
training airplane pilot training, whereby training costs and hazards can be reduced.
Coaching/Mentoring: A method of on-the-job training where an experienced
Method the trainee’s supervisor trains the employee.
Action Learning: A training technique by which management trainees
are allowed to work full-time
analyzing and solving problems in other departments.
Case study method: A development method in which the manager is presented
with a written description
of an organizational problem to diagnose and solve.
Business games: A development technique in which teams of managers
compete with one another by
making computerized decisions regarding realistic but simulated companies.
Behavior modeling: A training technique in which trainees are first
shown good management techniques
in a film, are then asked to play roles in a simulated situation, and are then
given feedback and praise by
Learning organization: An organization skilled at creating, acquiring,
and transferring knowledge and at
modifying its behavior to reflect new knowledge and insights.