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After studying this chapter, students should be able to understand the following:

A. Explain Socialization

B. Describe Training

C. Identify Development

D. Understand Training and Development Trends

E. Evaluate the Recruitment Process



Today we will be discussing the orientation or the socialization process that acclimatizes the new hires to

the organization. We will discuss in detail that who is responsible for conducting this process and the stages

of the socialization process. Further we will also have overview of the training and development process.

A. Socialization

In order to reduce the anxiety that new employees may experience, attempts should be made to integrate

the person into the informal organization. The initial T&D effort designed for employees is Socialization,

the guided adjustment of new employees to the company, the job, and the work group.

I. Purposes of Socialization

Socialization formats are unique to each firm. However, some basic purposes include emphasizing these

areas: the employment situation (job, department, and company), company policies and rules, compensation

and benefits, corporate culture, team membership, employee development, dealing with change, and


a. The Employment Situation

A basic purpose, from the firm’s viewpoint, is to have the new employee become productive as quickly as

possible. Therefore, specific information about performing the job may be provided at an early point in


b. Company Policies and Rules

Every job within an organization must be performed considering the guidelines and constraints provided by

policies and rules. Employees must have an understanding of these to permit a smooth transition to the


c. Compensation and Benefits

Employees will have a special interest in obtaining information about the reward system. Although this

information is usually provided during the recruitment and selection process, a review of the data is

appropriate during Socialization.

d. Corporate Culture

The firm’s culture reflects, in effect, how we do things around here. This relates to everything from the way

employees dress to the way they talk.

e. Team Membership

A new employee’s ability and willingness to work in teams is most likely determined before he or she is

hired. In Socialization, the importance of becoming a valued member of the company team may be


f. Employee Development

Employees should know exactly what is expected of them and what is required by the firm for advancement

in the job or via promotion.

g. Dealing With Change

Employees at all levels must learn to effectively deal with change in order to survive in their jobs. The best

way individuals can be prepared for change is to continually develop and expand their skills.

h. Socialization

In order to reduce the anxiety that new employees may experience, attempts should be made to integrate the person into the informal organization. See the topic agents of socialization in zeepedia.com.

II. Stages in socialization Process:

Socialization can be conceptualized as a process made up of three stages.

a. Pre-arrival Stage:

This stage explicitly recognizes that each individual arrives with a set of organizational values, attitudes, and

expectations. For instance, in many jobs, particularly high skilled and managerial jobs, new members will

have undergone a considerable degree of prior socialization in training and in school. Pre-arrival

socialization, however, goes beyond the specific job. The selection process is used in most organizations to

inform perspective employees about the organization as whole. In addition, of course, interviews in the

selection process also act to ensure the inclusion of the “right type” determining those who will fit in.

Indeed, the ability of the individuals to present the appropriate face during the selection process determines

their ability to move into the organization in the first place. Thus success depends upon the degree to which

aspiring members have correctly anticipated the expectations and desires of those in the organization in

charge of selection.

b. Encounter Stage:

Upon entry into the organization, new members enter the encounter stage. Here the individuals confront

the possible dichotomy between their expectations about their jobs, their coworkers, their supervisors, and

the organization in general and reality. If expectations prove to have been more or less accurate, the

encounter state merely provides a reaffirmation of the perceptions generated earlier. However, this is often

not the case. Where expectation and reality differ; new employees must undergo socialization that will

detach them from their previous assumption and replace these with the organization’s pivotal standards.

Socialization, however, cannot solve all the expectation differences. At the extreme, some new members

may become totally disillusioned with the actualities of their jobs and resign. It is hoped that proper

selection would significantly reduce this latter occurrence.

c. Metamorphosis Stage:

Finally the new member must workout any problems discovered during the encounter stage. This may mean

going through changes. Hence the last stage is termed as metamorphosis stage. Metamorphosis is complete

as is the socialization process – when new members have become comfortable with the organization and

their work teams. In this situation they will have internalized the norms of the organization and their

coworkers; and they understand and accept these norms. New members will feel accepted by their peers as

trusted and valued individuals. They will have gained an understanding of the organizational system- not

only their own tasks but the rules, procedures and informally accepted practices as well. Finally they will

know how they are going to be evaluated. They will know what is expected of them and what constitutes a

good job. Consequently, successful metamorphosis should have positive effect on a new employees

productivity and the employee’s commitment to the organization, and should reduce the likelihood that the

employee will leave the organization any time soon.

III. Many People Socialize new Hires

New employee socialization or orientation covers the activities involved in introducing a new employee to

the organization and to his or her work unit. How is responsible for the orientation of new employee? This

can be done by the supervisor, the people in HRM, Peers, CEO, or combination of any of these.

a. HRM Department: HRM department can conduct the orientation in order to socialize

the newly hired employees with the working environment of the organization. HRM plays

a major role in new employee orientation-the role of coordination, which ensures that the

appropriate components are in place. In addition HRM also serves as a participant in

program. As job offers are made and accepted, HRM should instruct the new employee

when to report to work. However, before the employee formally arrives, HRM must be

prepared to handle some of the more routine needs of these individuals.

b. Supervisor: Immediate supervisor of particular department can also be the source of

informing the employees about the culture, rules, procedures and policies of the



organization. Mostly in smaller organizations, orientation may mean the new member

reports to supervisor, who then assigns the new member to other employee who will

introduce the new member to other coworkers. This may be followed by a quick tour to

show the different parts and departments of the organization.

c. Peers: Peers and coworkers of the new hires can perform the orientation function in order

to tell the expectation of employers and requirements of the organization as can also

answer the queries raised from the employee side.

d. Organizational culture: Organizational culture itself can express the do’s and don’ts of

any organization. Every organization has its own unique culture. This culture includes

longstanding, and often unwritten, rules and regulation; a special language that facilitates

communication among members; shared standards of relevance as to the critical aspects of

the work that is to be done; standards for social etiquette, customs for how members

should relate to peers, employees, bosses and outsiders; what is appropriate and smart

behavior with in organization and what is not.

e. CEO: Prior to mid 1980s, new employee orientation operated, if at all, with out any

output from the company’s executive management. But that began to change, due in part

to management consultants advocating that senior management become more accessible to

employees. The CEO’s first responsibility is to welcome new employees aboard and talk to

them about what a good job choice they made. The CEO is in position to inspire these

new employees by talking about what it is like to work for the organization. When CEO is

present in the socialization process, the company is sending a message that it truly cares for

its employees.

IV. Topics covered in employee Orientation program:

Following topics are covered in orientation or socialization process.

a. Introduction: Regarding the organization, supervisor, trainers, and coworkers and to


b. Job Duties: It provides job related information like, Job location Job tasks Job safety

requirements Overview of job, Job objectives Relationship to other jobs

c. Organizational Issues: This provides the information about the overall organization it

may include; History of employer, organization of employer, name & titles of key

executive, employee’s titles and departments, layout of physical facilities, probationary

period, overview of production process, company policies and rules, disciplinary

regulations, employee handbook, safety procedures etc

d. Employee Benefits: This part provides the information about the benefits that are

offered by the organization like; Pay scales & paydays, vacations rest break, training &

education benefits, counseling, housing facilities, insurance benefits, retirement program,

employee-provided services for employees, rehabilitation program

The Hiring Process

Hiring process is completed here because orientation or the socialization process is the last step of hiring.

Next we will be discussing the training programs in the organization.

B. Training

Training is a process whereby people acquire capabilities to aid in the achievement of organizational goals.

It involves planned learning activities designed to improve an employee’s performance at her/his current

job. Training refers to the methods used to give new or present employees the skills they need to perform

their jobs.



C. Development

All efforts to provide employees with the abilities the organizations will need in the future

D. Training and Development Trends:

• Skill requirements will continue to increase

• Workforce will become significantly better educated & more diverse

• Corporate restructuring reshapes businesses

• Technology will revolutionize certain training delivery methods

• The role of training departments will change

• More flexible courses aimed specifically at performance improvement

• More firms will strive to become learning organizations

• Emphasis on human performance management will accelerate

Key Terms

Socialization: In order to reduce the anxiety that new employees may experience, attempts should be made

to integrate the person into the informal organization.

Training: Training is a process whereby people acquire capabilities to aid in the achievement of

organizational goals. It involves planned learning activities designed to improve an employee’s performance

at her/his current job.

Corporate Culture: The firm’s culture reflects, in effect, how we do things around here. This relates to

everything from the way employees dress to the way they talk.

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