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After studying this chapter, students should be able to understand the following concepts:

A. Job Analysis


Today we will be continuing with job analysis, we will be discussing the steps in job analysis. Further we will

discuss methods that can be used to analyze the job in organization.

A. Job Analysis:

Job analysis is the procedure through which you determine the duties and nature of the jobs and the kinds

of people who should be hired for them. You can utilize the information it provides to write job

descriptions and job specifications, which are utilized in recruitment and selection, compensation,

performance appraisal, and training.

I. Job Analysis Methods

Job analysis traditionally has been conducted in a number of different ways. Also, firms differ in their needs

and in the resources they have for conducting job analysis.

Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information

􀂾 Introduction

1. An HR specialist (an HR specialist, job analyst, or consultant), a worker, and the worker’s

supervisor usually work together in conducting the job analysis.

2. Job analysis data is usually collected from several employees from different departments,

using interviews and questionnaires. The data is then averaged, taking into account the departmental

context of the employees, to determine how much time a typical employee spends on each of several

specific tasks.

a. The Interview

1. The three types of interviews managers use to collect job analysis data are: individual (to

get the employee’s perspective on the job’s duties and responsibilities, group (when large numbers of

employees perform the same job), and supervisor (to get his/her perspective on the job’s duties and


2. The pros of using an interview are that it is: simple, quick, and more comprehensive

because the interviewer can unearth activities that may never appear in written form.

3. The following questions are some examples of typical questions. “What is the job being

performed?” “In what activities do you participate?” “What are the health and safety conditions?” Figure

3-3 gives an example of a job analysis questionnaire.

4. The following are interview guidelines: a) the job analyst and supervisor should identify

the workers who know the job best and would be objective; b) establish a rapport with the interviewee; c)

follow a structured guide or checklist; d) ask worker to list duties in order of importance and frequency of

occurrence; and e) review and verify the data.

b. Questionnaire

1. Structured or unstructured questionnaires may be used to obtain job analysis information

2. Questionnaires can be a quick, efficient way of gathering information from a large number

of employees. But, developing and testing a questionnaire can be expensive and time consuming.

c. Observation

1. Direct observations are useful when jobs consist of mainly observable physical activity as

opposed to mental activity.

2. Reactivity can be a problem with direct observations, which is where the worker changes

what he/she normally does because he/she is being watched.

3. Managers often use direct observation and interviewing together.

d. Participant Diary / Logs

1. The employee records every activity he/she engages in, in a diary or log along with the

amount of time to perform each activity to produce a complete picture of the job.

2. Employees may try to exaggerate some activities and underplay others.

e. Quantitative Job Analysis Techniques

1. Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) is a questionnaire used to collect quantifiable data

concerning the duties and responsibilities of various jobs, see Figure 3-5, on five basic activities: a) having

decision-making/communication/social responsibilities, b) performing skilled activities, c) being physically

active, d) operating vehicles/equipment, and e) processing information.

2. Department of Labor Procedure (DOL) is a standardized method for rating, classifying,

and comparing virtually every kind of job based on data, people, and things. Table 3-1 shows a set of basic

activities, and Figure 3-6 gives a sample summary.

3. Functional job analysis: 1) rates a job on data; people; things; the extent to which specific

instructions are necessary to perform the task; the extent to which reasoning and judgment are required to

perform the task; and mathematical ability required to perform the task; and 2) identifies performance

standards and training requirements.

f. Using Multiple Sources of Information

Likely, no one job analysis method will be used exclusively. A combination is often more appropriate.

1. Where possible, collect job analysis data using several types of collection techniques and


2. Potential inaccuracies in peoples’ judgments could lead to inaccurate conclusions

II. Source of Data

Main sources of collection of data for job analysis are as following:

• Employees

• Supervisor

• Manager

• Job Analyst

• Job Analyst (HR)

• Outside consultant

• Supervisor/Manager

III. Problems with Job Analysis

Too lengthy

• Time consuming and requires much patience

• Might be a reflection of stereotypes

Key Terms

Job Identification – contains the job title, the FLSA status, date, and possible space to indicate who

approved the description, the location of the job, the immediate supervisor’s title, salary and/or pay scale.

Job Summary – should describe the general nature of the job, and includes only its major functions or


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