After studying this chapter, students should be able to understand the following
A. Job Analysis
Today we will be continuing with job analysis, we will be discussing the steps
in job analysis. Further we will
discuss methods that can be used to analyze the job in organization.
A. Job Analysis:
Job analysis is the procedure through which you determine the duties and nature
of the jobs and the kinds
of people who should be hired for them. You can utilize the information it provides
to write job
descriptions and job specifications, which are utilized in recruitment and selection,
performance appraisal, and training.
I. Job Analysis Methods
Job analysis traditionally has been conducted in a number of different ways.
Also, firms differ in their needs
and in the resources they have for conducting job analysis.
Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information
1. An HR specialist (an HR specialist, job analyst, or consultant), a worker,
and the worker’s
supervisor usually work together in conducting the job analysis.
2. Job analysis data is usually collected from several employees from different
using interviews and questionnaires. The data is then averaged, taking into account
context of the employees, to determine how much time a typical employee spends
on each of several
a. The Interview
1. The three types of interviews managers use to collect job analysis data are:
get the employee’s perspective on the job’s duties and responsibilities, group
(when large numbers of
employees perform the same job), and supervisor (to get his/her perspective on
the job’s duties and
2. The pros of using an interview are that it is: simple, quick, and more comprehensive
because the interviewer can unearth activities that may never appear in written
3. The following questions are some examples of typical questions. “What is the
performed?” “In what activities do you participate?” “What are the health and
safety conditions?” Figure
3-3 gives an example of a job analysis questionnaire.
4. The following are interview guidelines: a) the job analyst and supervisor
the workers who know the job best and would be objective; b) establish a rapport
with the interviewee; c)
follow a structured guide or checklist; d) ask worker to list duties in order
of importance and frequency of
occurrence; and e) review and verify the data.
1. Structured or unstructured questionnaires may be used to obtain job analysis
2. Questionnaires can be a quick, efficient way of gathering information from
a large number
of employees. But, developing and testing a questionnaire can be expensive and
1. Direct observations are useful when jobs consist of mainly observable physical
opposed to mental activity.
2. Reactivity can be a problem with direct observations, which is where the worker
what he/she normally does because he/she is being watched.
3. Managers often use direct observation and interviewing together.
d. Participant Diary / Logs
1. The employee records every activity he/she engages in, in a diary or log along
amount of time to perform each activity to produce a complete picture of the
2. Employees may try to exaggerate some activities and underplay others.
e. Quantitative Job Analysis Techniques
1. Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) is a questionnaire used to collect quantifiable
concerning the duties and responsibilities of various jobs, see Figure 3-5, on
five basic activities: a) having
decision-making/communication/social responsibilities, b) performing skilled
activities, c) being physically
active, d) operating vehicles/equipment, and e) processing information.
2. Department of Labor Procedure (DOL) is a standardized method for rating, classifying,
and comparing virtually every kind of job based on data, people, and things.
Table 3-1 shows a set of basic
activities, and Figure 3-6 gives a sample summary.
3. Functional job analysis: 1) rates a job on data; people; things; the extent
to which specific
instructions are necessary to perform the task; the extent to which reasoning
and judgment are required to
perform the task; and mathematical ability required to perform the task; and
2) identifies performance
standards and training requirements.
f. Using Multiple Sources of Information
Likely, no one job analysis method will be used exclusively. A combination is
often more appropriate.
1. Where possible, collect job analysis data using several types of collection
2. Potential inaccuracies in peoples’ judgments could lead to inaccurate conclusions
II. Source of Data
Main sources of collection of data for job analysis are as following:
• Job Analyst
• Job Analyst (HR)
• Outside consultant
III. Problems with Job Analysis
• Time consuming and requires much patience
• Might be a reflection of stereotypes
Job Identification – contains the job title, the FLSA status, date,
and possible space to indicate who
approved the description, the location of the job, the immediate supervisor’s
title, salary and/or pay scale.
Job Summary – should describe the general nature of the job, and includes
only its major functions or