After studying this chapter, students should be able to understand the following
A. Job Analysis
We begin the chapter by describing why job analysis is a basic human resource
management tool and
explaining the reasons for conducting job analysis. Next, we review the types
of job analysis information
required and discuss job analysis methods. Then, we explain the components of
a well-designed job
description and describe other methods for conducting job analysis and the ways
job analysis helps to
satisfy various legal requirements. We then examine the human resource planning
process and some human
resource forecasting techniques. Next, we discuss forecasting human resource
requirements and availability
and describe what actions could be taken should either a surplus or a shortage
of workers exist. The chapter
ends with a discussion of succession planning and development and job design.
A. Job Analysis:
Studying and under-standing jobs through the process known as
job analysis is a vital part
of any HRM
I. Purposes of the job Analysis
Job analysis is used to acquire the information in following areas
1. Major duties or activities required
2. Conditions under which the job is performed
So this process helps us to learn the following concepts:
• Job: A group of tasks that must be performed if an organization
is to achieve its goals.
• Position: The tasks and responsibilities performed by
one person; there is a position for every
individual in an organization.
• Task: A distinct, identifiable work activity composed
• Duty: A larger work segment composed of several tasks
that are performed by an individual.
• Responsibility: An obligation to perform certain tasks
II. Job Analysis Defined:
Job Analysis is the SYSTEMATIC process of collecting and making judgments about
all the important
information related to a job. Job analysis is the procedure through which you
determine the duties and
nature of the jobs and the kinds of people who should be hired for them. You
can utilize the information it
provides to write job descriptions and job specifications that are utilized in
recruitment and selection,
compensation, performance appraisal, and training.
III. Reasons For Conducting Job Analysis
A sound job analysis system is extremely critical for numerous reasons.
• Staffing—All areas of staffing would be haphazard if the recruiter
did not know the
qualifications needed to perform the job.
• Training And Development—if the specification suggests
that the job requires a
particular knowledge, skill, or ability—and the person filling the position does
all the qualifications required—training and/or development is probably in order.
• Compensation and Benefits—The relative value of a particular
job to the company must
be known before a dollar value can be placed on it. From an internal perspective
significant its duties and responsibilities, the more the job is worth.
• Safety and Health—Information derived from job analysis
is also valuable in identifying
safety and health considerations.
• Employee and Labor Relations—Regardless of whether the
firm is unionized,
information obtained through job analysis can often lead to more objective human
• Legal Considerations—having properly accomplished a job
analysis is particularly
important for supporting the legality of employment practices.
a. Job Analysis for Teams—Today whenever someone asks, “What
is your job
description?” the reply might well is, “Whatever.” What this means is that if
a project has
to be completed, individuals do what has to be done to complete the task.
IV. Types of Job Analysis Information
Considerable information is needed if job analysis is to be accomplished successfully.
Knowledge of the
types of machines, tools, equipment, and work aids that are used in performing
the job is important. Some
job analysis systems identify the standards that are established for the job.
Questions Job Analysis Should Answer
• What physical and mental tasks does the worker accomplish?
• When does the job have to be completed?
• Where is the job to be accomplished?
• How does the worker do the job?
• Why is the job done?
• What qualifications are needed to perform the job?
V. When Job analysis is performed?
Job analysis is conducted under following situations.
• When the organization is founded
When organizations are created complete information about jobs to be performed
is collected through job
• When new jobs are created
When jobs are changed significantly as a result of new technologies, methods,
procedures, or systems for
analyzing them job analysis is conducted.
VI. Uses of Job Analysis Information
1. Recruitment and Selection – Job descriptions and job specifications are formed
information gathered from a job analysis, which help management decide what sort
of people to
recruit and hire.
2. Compensation – The estimated value and the appropriate compensation for each
job is determined
from the information gathered from a job analysis.
3. Performance Appraisal – Managers use job analysis to determine a job’s specific
4. Training – Based on the job analysis, the job description should show the
job’s required activities
5. Discovering Unassigned Duties – Job analysis can help reveal unassigned duties.
6. EEO Compliance – The Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection stipulate that
job analysis is a
crucial step in validating all major personnel activities.
VII. Steps in Job Analysis
The job analysis process has the following steps:
1. Identify how the information will be used because that will determine what
data will be collected
and how it should be collected. Interviewing and position analysis questionnaire
are some examples of data
2. Review relevant background information, such as organization charts, process
charts, and job
3. Select representative positions to analyze because there may be too many similar
jobs to analyze,
and it may not be necessary to analyze them all.
4. Analyze the job by collecting data on job activities, required employee behaviors,
conditions, and human traits and abilities needed to perform the job.
5. Review and verify the job analysis information with job incumbents to confirm
that it is factually
correct and complete.
6. Develop a job description and job specification from the job analysis information.
VIII. Job analysis outcomes
a. Job description
A job description is a written statement of what the jobholder actually does,
how he or she does it, and
under what conditions the job is performed. There is no standard format for writing
job descriptions, but
most descriptions include sections on:
• job identification
• job summary
• relationships, responsibilities, and duties
• authority of incumbent
• standards of performance
• working conditions
• job specifications
b. Job specification
A job specification is a document containing the minimum acceptable qualifications
that a person should
possess in order to perform a particular job. Items typically included in the
job specification are educational
requirements, experience, personality traits, and physical abilities.
c. Job evaluation
In Job Evaluation process the worth of job is identified based upon job comparability
and according to
worth, importance of job and relative value Compensation is designed and selected.
Job Analysis: Studying and under-standing jobs through the process
known as job analysis
is a vital part of
any HRM program
Job Specification: A job specification is a document containing the
minimum acceptable qualifications that
a person should possess in order to perform a particular job
Job Description: A job description is a written statement of what
the jobholder actually does, how he or
she does it, and under what conditions the job is performed.
Job Evaluation: It suggests about the relevant importance of a particular
job in organization.