• informative speaking
• persuasive speaking
Informative Speaking has audience
learning as its primary goal.
An informative speech may explain a
concept, instruct an audience, demonstrate
a process, or describe an event.
In an professional setting, the informative
speech may take many different forms:
Individual or Group Report
Persuasive Speaking is used to influence
what an audience thinks or does.
Some of the goals of persuasive speaking
to reinforce the attitudes, beliefs,
and values an audience already
to inoculate an audience against
to change attitudes
to motivate an audience to act
There are at least four methods for making
an oral presentation.
Irrespective of the method of delivery, the
presenter must consider the following
parameters in preparing for the
knowledge of the audience,
knowledge of subject,
use of time,
personal appearance and grooming.
Knowledge of the Audience:
Do not patronize your audience!
Neither speak down nor speak up to
How much do they already know
about your subject?
Know the age level of the audience as
well as its members' level of
educational sophistication and special
Tailor your presentation accordingly.
• Poise and Enthusiasm
• Eye Contact
• Use of Voice
•Use of Time
Making a Formal Presentation:
• The material of your presentation should be
concise, to the point and tell an interesting
• In addition to the obvious things like content
and visual aids, the following are just as
important as the audience will be
subconsciously taking them in:
• Your voice
- how you say
it is as important
• Prepare the structure of the talk
carefully and logically, just as you would
for a written report. What are:
• the objectives of the talk?
• the main points you want to make?
Greet the audience (for example, 'Good
morning, ladies and gentlemen'), and tell
them who you are. Good presentations
then follow this formula:
tell the audience what you are going to
then tell them,
at the end tell them what you have told
• Speak clearly. Don't shout or whisper -judge
the acoustics of the room.
• Don't rush, or talk deliberately slowly.
Be natural - although not conversational
• Deliberately pause at key points - this
has the effect of emphasising the
importance of a particular point you are
• Visual aids significantly improve the
interest of a presentation. However,
they must be relevant to what you want
• A careless design or use of a slide can
simply get in the way of the
• What you use depends on the type of
talk you are giving.
• Here are some possibilities:
– Overhead projection transparencies (OHPs)
– 35mm slides
– Computer projection (Powerpoint, applications
such as Excel, etc)
– Video, and film,
– Real objects - either handled from the speaker's
bench or passed around
– Flip~chart or blackboard - possibly used as a
'scratch-pad' to expand on a point
Types of Oral communication
Modes of delivery
Making a Oral Presentation