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Business and Technical English Writing

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Oral Communication

Summary Slide

Types of Oral






Modes of delivery

Delivery guidelines

Importance of communication

Ideas are useless unless you

communicate to someone else.


Consider the example of Ahmed, who

majored in metallurgy. He has analyzed a

group of Pistons that broke when used in

experimental automobile engine. His skillful

analysis is of no use unless he

communicates the results to someone

else, such as the engineer who must

redesign the pistons.

Oral Presentations

Oral presentations can be formal or

informal, depending upon their explicit and

implicit purposes and the delivery situation.

An oral presentation can be almost any

report type, such as a design review, a

proposal, or a conference talk.

Effective oral communication is a

combination of many skills:

outlining and planning,

preparing overheads or other display


rehearsing and


Oral presentations in professional environment

generally fall into two categories:

• informative speaking

• persuasive speaking

Informative Speaking

Informative Speaking has audience

learning as its primary goal.

An informative speech may explain a

concept, instruct an audience, demonstrate

a process, or describe an event.

In an professional setting, the informative

speech may take many different forms:

Individual or Group Report

Oral Briefing

Panel Discussion

Oral Critique

Persuasive Speaking

Persuasive Speaking is used to influence

what an audience thinks or does.

Some of the goals of persuasive speaking


to reinforce the attitudes, beliefs,

and values an audience already


to inoculate an audience against

counter persuasion

to change attitudes

to motivate an audience to act

Delivery Methods:

There are at least four methods for making

an oral presentation.






Irrespective of the method of delivery, the

presenter must consider the following

parameters in preparing for the


knowledge of the audience,

knowledge of subject,

use of time,

rehearsal and

personal appearance and grooming.

Knowledge of the Audience:

Do not patronize your audience!

Neither speak down nor speak up to

your audience.

How much do they already know

about your subject?

Know the age level of the audience as

well as its members' level of

educational sophistication and special


Tailor your presentation accordingly.

Presentation Delivery:

• Poise and Enthusiasm

• Eye Contact

• Use of Voice

•Use of Time

Making a Formal Presentation:

• The material of your presentation should be

concise, to the point and tell an interesting


• In addition to the obvious things like content

and visual aids, the following are just as

important as the audience will be

subconsciously taking them in:

Your voice - how you say it is as important

as what you say


• Prepare the structure of the talk

carefully and logically, just as you would

for a written report. What are:

• the objectives of the talk?

• the main points you want to make?

Greet the audience (for example, 'Good

morning, ladies and gentlemen'), and tell

them who you are. Good presentations

then follow this formula:

tell the audience what you are going to

tell them,

then tell them,

at the end tell them what you have told



• Speak clearly. Don't shout or whisper -judge

the acoustics of the room.

• Don't rush, or talk deliberately slowly.

Be natural - although not conversational

• Deliberately pause at key points - this

has the effect of emphasising the

importance of a particular point you are


Visual Aids:

• Visual aids significantly improve the

interest of a presentation. However,

they must be relevant to what you want

to say.

• A careless design or use of a slide can

simply get in the way of the


• What you use depends on the type of

talk you are giving.

Visual Aids:

• Here are some possibilities:

– Overhead projection transparencies (OHPs)

– 35mm slides

– Computer projection (Powerpoint, applications

such as Excel, etc)

– Video, and film,

– Real objects - either handled from the speaker's

bench or passed around

– Flip~chart or blackboard - possibly used as a

'scratch-pad' to expand on a point


Types of Oral communication





Modes of delivery

Delivery guidelines

Making a Oral Presentation

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