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33 Steps to Great Presentation

Preparing Your Presentation: presentation summary, power point,

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Delivering Your Presentation: gain confidence, express yourself,

Prepare your platform

When the most successful football manager in the world, Sir Alex Ferguson, took his team to Barcelona
or Bayern Munich for a crucial match, he didn't just let his team arrive and play. Naturally they train
in preparation.

During training he didn't simply shout at them, "Run faster, kick harder, pass more accurately!" Sir Alex
would know what the opposition's tactics were, how their fans behaved, how easy it was to get to the
stadium from the hotel, whether the grass would be cut long or short. He'd prepare his team for every
possibility, to give the players a platform to perform and demonstrate their skills at the highest level

Preparing for a presentation is similar. It's not just about going over the slides a few times; it's about
thinking over all aspects of those moments that you will be in front of your audience. It's about building
a platform of confidence

.This Preparation section is going to help you increase the percentages that you are going to do well,
before you've said a word.

How much time to spend on preparation

To answer this, I'll give you my version of an apocryphal story about Pablo Picasso.

Late in life, he was stopped by a lady at an airport. Being a huge fan, the lady couldn't contain herself
and asked the artist to make a sketch for her on a handkerchief.

Picasso did so, and handing it over to her said, "That'll be ten thousand dollars."

The woman was stunned. "How can it cost that much? It only took you thirty seconds.

Picasso looked her in the eye with a sharp piercing stare and replied, "Thirty seconds, madam, and a

Your moments in the spotlight are the distillation of all the preparation you make. It's up to you how
good you want that to be, and how much time you wish to invest into it.

There is a theory that you should spend one hour preparing per minute of allocated presentation time.
This is probably excessive for most situations: nevertheless, I'd recommend investing at least 20 minutes
preparation per minute of presentation.

Get started with your preparation well in advance

Usually you'll know at least a few days in advance, and sometimes longer, that you are due to make a
presentation. Most people prepare like this as the days count down;

  • 10 days to go: " Plenty of time to start that presentation, better get on with this other stuff first."
  • 6 days to go: " Really need to get to grips with that pres. I'll start first thing Monday morning."
  • 2 days to go: "Right – everything else has to wait, I'm concentrating on that PowerPoint!"
  • 1 day to go: " I really don't know how this is going to end up there simply wasn't time to prepare."

Life and business are busy, and you're bombarded with tasks. Nevertheless, don't be like 'most people'
and avoid allowing yourself to get into that position.

I have faith in the basic principle of time-management mentioned by presentation and business coach,
Brian Tracy: "There is never enough time to do everything, but there is always enough time to do the
important things."

If you acknowledge that presentation can have a significant influence on your working life, then put its
prepa ation high on your list of priorities.

As soon as you know the date of your sot, get some content down – even if it's just a few scribbles on
pads or Post-it®* notes (more on this later). Allowing your mind to work with the subject subconsciously
is one of the best ways to prepare, and that requires time.

You'll find yourself thinking the subject over in the shower, in the car to work, and over coffee with a
colleague. When those thoughts start to flow, add them to your rough notes; your story is beginning
to form.

Make a quick preparation schedule so that you can manage the time up to the deadline;

  • First ideas on paper
  • First draft on-screen
  • Refined version
  • Test run
  • Final edit and test

Setting up a timetable for developing the presentation to its end will set your mind at rest, and will also
help ensure you prepare strongly.

A winning effort begins with preparation

"A winning effort begins with preparation."
Joe Gibbs (sports coach)

Communication is what the listener does

Before putting a word down, the most crucial element to think about is the audience.

This seems really obvious, right? Yet surely you have sat in a meeting where people tell everything in
their mind, without giving a thought to how the others in the room might react.

Taking time to consider the profile of your audience and adapting the tone and detail of your message
accordingly will significantly increase its impact. The basic question to answer before you start developing
content is this: What do I want the audience to do, think or say afterwards?

A presentation is always about a persuasion. Let's compare these two sets of circumstances.

  1. Asking the management to agree on an additional investment; convincing your team to
    follow a controversial strategy; introducing your products to a sceptical group of customers.
  2. A project update at a weekly department meeting; a two-minute opening to a larger event;
    introducing yourself at a training session.

The first group consists of clear 'selling moments'. In short, you're presenting because you want to get
those people to come round to your view and take action based on their agreement. It's pretty clear what
you want them to do and both parties are more than likely aware of the dynamics of that presentation.

The second group of situations is not so clearly about persuading or selling. Your audience is more
passive, there is no overt element of bargaining, and you might just want to 'get in and get out' as quickly
as possible because you are not their main focus.

However, whether we want them to or not, the audience will take action in every situation mentioned
in the two groups. They will form their opinion on you as a competent (or otherwise) project leader, as
the guy who makes various parties feel comfortable (or otherwise) at events and meetings, and as the
interesting (or otherwise) colleague that they'd like to talk with (or avoid) at the break

.Finally every audience will take action, even if only in thought. Shaping that action is your role as the
presenter, no matter the size of opportunity to present yourself.

Communication works for those who work at it.”

"Communication works for those who work at it."
John Powell (composer)

Assess your audience's expectations

Part of considering your audience is taking time to assess what they are expecting. Are they looking
for flamboyance? Do they just want the information, plain and simple? Are they technical people, or a
mixed crowd?

Generally, this will be apparent, because the majority of presentations are given to specific types of
audiences. Take this example;

  • You're running a project which has an element of IT [Information Technology]
    transformation in it. You're not an IT specialist, but you're presenting to the managers of the
    IT department on the progress of the project as a whole.

Your challenge in this situation will be to ensure the IT guys realise you appreciate their job and the
issues they deal with. You'll need to add some vocabulary and concepts that resonate with them: how
do you do that if you're not an expert? Whatever you do, don't just bluff it! Preparation is the key.

It's clear from the beginning of the project that you'll present to various groups with an IT focus. When
they contribute as the project progresses, pay close attention to their vocabulary and take time to
understand to some level what their own challenges and attitudes are. Reflecting their vocabulary and
concerns back to them will help you.

In another situation you may be presenting to a more diverse team, giving you a couple of choices; go
for a common denominator, or reflect as many of the relevant groups in your presentation as possible.
Here are two potential approaches;

  1. You're presenting to an international group of salespeople at a European head office meeting.
    Either present the European sales only; or mention individual countries, ensuring you name
    as many of the countries attending as possible
  2. You're giving a talk to a group of students from a variety of disciplines who may want to
    work for your company. Either you focus on the general values and future of your company;
    or you find out exactly which subjects your audience is studying, and reflect the potential
    areas where they might work based on their background.

Either of these approaches will work. What's important is spending time to think the situation through.
Doing your best to reflect the audience will communicate that you care about what's important to them.

I don’t think anyone ever gets over the surprise of

"I don't think anyone ever gets over the surprise of
how different one audience's reaction is from another."
Dick Cavett (talk show host)

Know your venue and how to get there

One of the biggest stress-providers possible is being late. So if you're presenting at a meeting that's a
45-minute drive away, leave yourself two hours and get there early.I know this should be obvious, but I've seen so many people arrive at the last minute, sweating as the computer fails to start up while the audience waits impatiently, that I feel compelled to push this one home.

Getting there early has other benefits. You can join the coffee break and have a chat with a couple of
attendees: tell them you're presenting and looking forward to doing so. Be positive and tell that you're
looking forward to sharing your story. Mention a couple of highlights from your presentation: saying
some ideas out loud helps you get your voice working and moves your mind into gear.

This will all reduce your stress levels and allow your body to be in control, to enable you to perform at
your best. It's also much more useful than using the time to run through the slides one last time, which
often only results in an increase in tension.

Focus on your delivery more than the details

Back in 1967, psychologist Dr. Albert Mehrabian published two research papers assessing what elements
of a presenter's communication had which impact. His conclusion was that the impression consisted of;

  • 7% verbal (the words the audience hear and read)
  • 38% tone of voice (how the presenter speaks)
  • 55% body language (what the presenter does)

Mehrabian's research has been criticised and questioned over the years. For sure, anyone who loves to
load their slides with details and explanations will contest this data furiously. How am I supposed to get
my message across without explaining it in words on my slides?

Yet Mehrabian's theory is a very strong guide regarding quantity of content. Yes, the words do matter,
but what the audience will go away with primarily is an image of you as the presenter. How you said it
will be more memorable than what you said – absolutely guaranteed.

In reality, you can rarely get a complete story over in a 15–20 minute presentation. What you can deliver
is the headlines, and an incentive to find out more if they need to. A concise, well-delivered and confident
presentation will always be more memorable than a complicated story of endless content and duration.

There are numerous resources enabling you to share detailed follow up information: intranet, email,
company server, etc. Colleagues can pick up the slides and additional documentation any time they like.

What colleagues can't do later is hear it from you, which gives them so much more. What's the attitude
behind this project? Who is the person leading that team? What kind of entrepreneur am I being asked
to invest in?

So before starting that first PowerPoint slide, bear in mind that the timeless 'Less is More' approach is
hugely relevant for most presentations.

Ultimately, the slide content should provide cues for you, to know what you're going to say next; and
cues for your audience, supporting your words and actions, and helping them follow the story.

What you do speaks so loud that I cannot hear what you say

"What you do speaks so loud that I cannot hear what you say."
Ralph Waldo Emerson (philosopher)

Test-drive your talk

Chances are that you're being asked to present about something you've spent a lot of time on. You've
probably talked about the subject many times with your colleagues in informal meetings, in planning
sessions and especially at the coffee machine.

My suggestion: keep talking.

When you verbalise the issues you're dealing with every day, you find your language to distil that work
into short sentences and concepts. You develop a vocabulary of work, a 'phrase-toolkit' of how to explain
what you do.

You can also test out whether people 'get it' or not because you'll see it in their faces. Pay careful attention
to reactions and if they don't get it, ask them, "I'm not sure I'm explaining this too well, what's not clear here?"

Refining your vocabulary, phrases and concepts based on what people understand in informal discussions
is a perfect way to prepare for a presentation.

Don't wait until there's a presentation to be made. Test-drive your delivery in every situation you can find.

Use PowerPoint as a tool and consider other options

PowerPoint gets a bad press: the common phrase, 'Death by PowerPoint' is an example. I believe the
problem lies not with the tool itself, but rather in what presenters do with it.

Note the word 'tool'. A piece of software does not make a presentation; it only provides a tool for you to
deliver your message. You can choose to use it as you will. And probably, you'll want to avoid the top
mistakes made in making PowerPoint presentations.

We've all seen it. Animation for non-epileptics; bullet-points for detail addicts; 200 word quotes that fill
the slide; charts with hundreds of numbers, requiring binoculars from the second row back; and the 57
slide presentation for a 15 minute slot that has the presenter saying after 30 minutes, "Time is tight, I'll
skip this one." (Hmm, why is it there if you could skip it…?)

For those who have a strong aversion to PowerPoint, or are looking to make an especially creative
presentation, you can choose some clever alternatives. A series of handwritten flip-charts can be a very
powerful way of communicating, especially if you hang them up around the room before everyone
arrives. This enables the audience to see the whole story and refer backwards and forwards to your logic,
as well as the conclusion.

If you're really adventurous, simply pinning a few pictures on the wall and talking through the issue
based on the images can leave a long lasting impression.

Another method to try out is Prezi.com. It's a creative online tool that helps you get more of an overvieworiented
message across. If your area is sales, try Clearslide.com, which is especially good for sales pitches.

Using something different conveys a message about you and a willingness to be unconventional. If that's
what you want to communicate, and you feel confident to do it, go ahead. Nevertheless, around 90% of
presentations are made using good old PowerPoint.

So my advice is this: until you are very confident in presenting, stick to the standard medium. It's what
audiences are used to if you follow some basic rules about how to construct your presentation (which
we're about to come on to) you can make it work well for you.

There's one concept to give some thought to, however, before we start getting words and images down
on the page.

If your words or images are not relevant, making them

"If your words or images are not relevant, making them
dance in color won't make them more relevant."
Edward Tufte (Yale professor)

Use the Power of Three

There is a certain magic about the number three.

There seems to be no rational explanation why: it's just out there in so many ways that we simply cannot
ignore it.

Western society has been influenced by the ultimate trinity; The Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost.
When Cicero was perfecting the art of oratory in Ancient Rome, the Latin phrase 'omne trium perfectum'
was key – meaning 'everything that comes in threes is perfect.' Lincoln said in his Gettysburg address,
"A government by the people, for the people, and of the people."

There. That was in threes. It's just more persuasive, isn't it? And here are a few more examples.

Ready, steady, go! 'Lights. Camera. Action! Veni, vidi, vici. (I came, I saw, I conquered.)

Three Blind Mice. The Three Musketeers. The Three Stooges.

"Three things cannot be long hidden: the sun, the moon, and the truth." Buddha. "I'll try anything once,
twice if I like it, three times to make sure." Mae West. "There are three kinds of lies: lies, damned lies,
and statistics." Benjamin Disraeli.

So how do we apply this to presentation? Simple. Never put more than three pieces of information in
front of your audience at any one time.

Hard to believe your heavily detailed work can be expressed so simply. Yet breaking down your
presentation into parts of three is a highly effective method of ensuring your audience understands and
remembers the message.

The good news: you can break your threes down into further threes. Here is one example;

You're presenting the sales of a certain product and want your management to invest more money and
energy into marketing to back your winner;

  • Your key message: We should invest in product Z.
  • Your storyline:
    • Business of this product is growing,
    • However market share in not as strong as we'd targeted,
    • We can gain extra turnover by investing more
  • Your arguments:
    • 60% of the market is in 3 countries.
    • If we gain 5% market share in each, we'll reach our European target.
    • The cost of this investment will be X.

It is absolutely guaranteed that if you stick to the power of three, your presentations will be more
memorable, more actionable and more appreciated.

No-one can remember more than three points

"No-one can remember more than three points."
Philip Crosby (businessman)

Put your presentation together on Post-it notes

So you've been allowing your mind to wander over this subject and letting yourself think about the core
of your key message. You've taken the power of three seriously and are breaking down in your mind
some of the sentences and concepts you want to deliver.

The natural next step might be to open up PowerPoint, load the corporate template and start with Slide
One. But there is something flawed about this approach.

For you to make the presentation hang together, you need an overview of the whole story. The classic
Beginning, Middle and End must connect firmly together so the audience go away thinking, That whole
thing made sense.

How can you achieve this when you only look at one slide at a time? Forget the reflex to power up the
computer and try something new.

Lay your hands on a few sheets of A3 paper, some Post-it notes, and ideally a few differently coloured
markers. Now (very important) turn off the email and smartphone, sit somewhere quiet and allow
yourself to get focused.

Begin by taking your main issues. What three things do you want them to remember and take action on
from this presentation? Don't forget the power of three, and the fact that they will not remember much
actual content – they'll remember the way you delivered it.

Then write each key point in a different colour on separate Post-it notes and stick them on separate
pieces of A3.

Now you can start filling in further content. Don't do this in any particular order: just write down phrases
and ideas related to your presentation's subject and place the Post-its randomly on the A3 paper.

Spread out the sheets so you have an overview of what you are getting down, because that will spark
new ideas. Move the Post-its around to re-organise as much as you feel is necessary, clustering them
around the three key messages.

Don't think too hard. Just write out what comes to mind, and stick it down. Keep it short and don't write
down complete sentences: stick to a few key words or important phrases. And if you're feeling really
creative, throw in a few rough drawings and diagrams to illustrate the message.

Once you've put down a lot of your ideas, take a step back and look at the connections between what
you've written on the stickers. An order will start forming, and you'll begin to see how one issue leads
to another. Now you're developing a more complete view of the presentation.

You'll find this method helps release your creativity way more than the 'start with Slide One' approach.
Here's why.

When you work on PowerPoint, you're doing a huge number of technical things related to the software
itself. You're trying to get the font size right, make the graphics line up, ensure the Agenda is complete,
work out how to do that (probably unnecessary) bit of animation, worrying why Microsoft put your
favourite button in another place in their latest update…

Plus, you're sitting at your desk – email, phone, colleagues can all interrupt whatever 'flow' is really

How on earth can you focus on content like that?

Try out this new technique. You will completely surprise yourself at how much of your story will emerge
from your head and onto the page in an incredibly short time.

Better still, you'll find yourself forming phrases that will appear in the presentation and you'll gain a
clearer picture of the whole story, which will convey itself to the audience when you deliver it.

The result will be a quicker path to reaching the core of your presentation; you'll lead the audience
through your message as if it's a story; and they'll feel there is a conclusion and a clear reason why they
are listening.


Keep the details on your slides to a minimum

As we've acknowledged, PowerPoint is not in itself the presentation; it's a part of your platform from
which you are going to present. The objective is for the slides to support your story.

Let's be clear on this. there is no need to tell your whole story in the presentation slides. You are going

The purpose of your slides is primarily to provide the audience a guide to the story; and secondly to
give you visual prompts for delivering your message.

It's hard for most presenters to imagine they will know what to say, or that the audience will get the
message if there is little information on the screen. But I guarantee that you can always simplify your slides.

Take a look back at your Post-its. If anyone else looked at them, chances are they'd have a hard time
deciphering the phrases and ideas you've scribbled down. However, if they asked you what each note
meant, you'd have explanations for everything instantly at hand.

As you convert your Post-it notes into PowerPoint, keep this firmly in mind. In the slides, place concise
expressions of what you want to communicate and, in parallel, spend time to think about the kind of
words and phrases you'll use verbally to expand on them.

Resist the temptation to expand into detail and just think carefully through what you are going to say for
each point. See the connections between the ideas in your message and express this in your slide content.

A classic and powerful method to avoid too many words is using an image instead. If you do, ensure
that the image is relevant to your story and is an easy prompt for you to expand your message.

The stuff on screen is important, but not nearly as important as what you are going to say and how you
are going to say it. That's why this book focuses heavily on your preparation and delivery, and less on
what you are actually going to show.

Believe it or not, they're coming to see you, not your slides.

Once you get the right image the details aren’t that important

"Once you get the right image the details aren't that important."
Abbie Hoffman (activist)

Construct your slides: simple, clear, concise

If you work for any sizeable company, there will almost certainly be a corporate template that you need
to follow. If you're an entrepreneur, it's a good idea to make a consistent and standard format for your
own company too.

Here's a straightforward list of do's and don'ts: follow these and you won't go far wrong, giving you a
solid basis of visual style for your message.


  • Remember the Power of Three as your guiding principle.
  • Use a very simple layout with minimal colours.
  • Include a small company logo: top left or bottom right.
  • Have an opening slide showing the presentation title, your name and your company name.
  • Make an agenda with three main points.
  • Use images to support your story where relevant.
  • Use a simple and common font (no Brush script or Plantagenet Cherokee). If the presentation is opened on a PC without your fonts installed, it will look terrible.
  • Use only one font; headings in bold, image captions in italic,the rest in regular.
  • Make type size at least 24 point.
  • Keep sentences short.
  • Use quotes, as long as they are relevant.
  • Keep data and graphs as simple as possible, and highlight your key numbers.
  • Make a straightforward slide transition and apply it to all. 'Fade Through To Black' is best, set to 'Slow' in Options.
  • Run spell-check.


  • Make five introduction slides. Get the listeners into the story as quickly as possible.
  • Use clichéd quotes. Adding a slice of Martin Luther King while launching your new Pressure Washer or iPhone App is simply inappropriate.
  • Make it too long. Every slide will take at least a minute, often two minutes. Basic rule: 30 minutes = 20 slides
  • Present graph after graph, sheet after sheet of Excel, with unreadable data.
  • Read the slides out to the audience.
  • Put every word you want to say on the slide.

Construct your slides: simple, clear, concise

Check out the equipment at the presentation venue

You need to be sure of what tools will be used at the presentation venue.
If it's a small meeting room and a one-off presentation, this is not so crucial. However, if it's a larger
audience and you are just one of a number of speakers, there is much more to take into account.

Will you use your own laptop, or is there a central place to send your presentation in advance? In both
cases, ideally use the break before you're on to make a quick check. Does your computer connect OK to
the projector and the presentation show as you expect? Or does your presentation appear correctly on
someone else's laptop that's being used for all files?

Often when you plug into a projector, there can be problems with screen proportions. For example, if
you've set your presentation up in 4:3 format and the screen is 16:9, this will stretch your content, logo
and images. Usually in such cases, there will be a technical guy to fix it. If not, try yourself for a couple
of minutes at the maximum, but don't worry too much – it will still look OK

.If you've sent the presentation to someone else in advance, there is a possibility they will be using a
different version of PowerPoint than you, which can cause some problems. Using standard fonts and
avoiding excessive animation reduces most risk in this case as the majority of glitches will be in how
the type appears and how the animation works. Have a quick look at 3–4 slides – you'll know straight
away if there is a problem.

A small but important detail: if you're using a Mac computer to present with, make sure you have the
adaptor cable to connect to the projector. It's annoying but true that Macs have a different connector
from PCs. Any Apple Centre will have the right cable and adaptor.

Is there a lectern? Usually there is some kind of platform or table that has the presentation computer on
it. We'll come on to your movement and body language later – for now, I would say that you can either
do the presentation from behind the lectern or move around. Both have their benefits, and in general,
it will be more dynamic if you move across the stage

.However, the lighting may be set up specifically so that you need to be behind the lectern to be seen – in
which case, moving around is counter-productive

.If you do stay behind the lectern, you might have a temptation to grip hold of its sides for dear life! This
is a clear signal to the audience that you are nervous, so just relax, stand up straight and deliver the story.

Your hands should be free, ready to emphasise key points.

Is there a microphone? And is it wireless or hand-held?

If it's wireless, then make sure you know how it will be attached to you. Is it going to be passed on from
the previous speaker, or are there two mics so that you can attach it while the previous presenter is on
stage? The second option is naturally better and easier, but if you do have to swap over, just take your
time and don't hurry. The audience can wait for you to organise these small details.

If it's hand-held, you simply need to ensure you keep the microphone a good distance from your mouth
so that your voice is picked up clearly – a couple of centimetres at the most is best. The difficulty is that
you cannot hear whether the sound is being picked up or not so it is something you need to check in
advance. Once you know the rough optimum position of the microphone, keep it in mind and do pay
attention during your talk that your voice is being picked up

.Next let's talk about one important piece of equipment you should invest in for yourself.

Check out the equipment at the presentation venue

Buy yourself 10% extra confidence

Before the days of laptops and beamers, we used to do presentations with overheads and slide projectors.
It's truly hard to imagine, isn't it? Yet it was the only way.

My boss in the early '90s had a simple and very effective technique. He used a wireless control for
advancing the slides, which he sometimes held out of sight behind his back. Without taking his eye from
the audience, he would switch to the next slide and keep talking.

This approach was just one of the things that made him very convincing as a presenter.

If you break it down, it's simple. He knew what was on the next slide and had a sentence in his mind
for how to link the two slides: and he used a piece of equipment to enable the link to happen. Today, in
theory this wouldn't work because he would have to walk back to the laptop and press a key to change
the slide.

You can develop that level of confidence yourself by taking action on all the steps you've read so far.
Now there's a way to add an extra 10% of confidence by using a wireless remote control for your laptop.

There are a few available, and I leave the choice to you – most computer shops will stock a few different
ones. Nevertheless, I must tell you that Logitech makes one that I have used for years that's simply excellent,
called the R800. It's a little more expensive than others but it's worth every penny. It feels exactly right
in the hand; you simply plug it in and it works (Mac or PC); and the buttons are very simple. Plus it has
a laser pointer, enabling you to highlight key elements on your slides.

Being able to move the slides on without touching the computer simply makes you feel more confident,
and the audience is always a bit mystified how you do it. They feel you are a step ahead of them, giving
you an additional aura of authority, which in itself feeds your confidence.

Anything’s possible if you’ve got enough nerve

"Anything's possible if you've got enough nerve."
J.K. Rowling (author)

Preparing Your Presentation: Summary

  1. Give yourself enough time in advance to prepare and do enough run throughs.
  2. Spend at least 20 minutes of preparation per minute of presentation.
  3. Take time to think about the profile of your audience and their expectations.
  4. Know where the venue is and get there in plenty of time to be able to check the equipment.
  5. Your delivery is worth more than the written content: invest time into practicing how you will tell your story, as well as in the story itself.
  6. Test drive your ideas with colleagues at the coffee machine and learn which phrases and words work.
  7. Use PowerPoint as a tool to communicate your message, and don't use it to over-complicate
    the visual style of your presentation.
  8. Make the very best use of the Power of Three: break your information into threes.
  9. Prepare using Post-it notes.
  10. Leave your desk, switch off the phone and email, and give yourself time to think creatively
    about your story.
  11. Keep your slides simple and concise and extract any complex or over-detailed information.
  12. Buy yourself a remote control presenter and gain 10% extra confidence.

  1. Preparing Your Presentation: presentation summary, power point,
  2. Delivering Your Presentation: gain confidence, express yourself,
  3. Three Minute Presentation: elevator pitch, practice makes perfect,