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Introduction to Mass Communication

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What is photography?
Method of recording permanent images by light on to a chemically sensitive material is called
photography. It was developed in the 19th century through the artistic aspirations of two Frenchmen,
Nicéphore Niepce and Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre, whose combined discoveries led to the invention of
the first commercially successful process, the daguerreotype in 1837.

Stop-Action Photography

E. J. Marey, the painter Thomas Eakins, and Eadweard Muybridge all devised means for making
stop-action photographs that demonstrated the gap between what the mind thinks it sees and what the eye
actually perceives.


- Halftone


- George Eastman
- Introduction of roll film

Motion Pictures – A New Way in Mass Communication

Motion picture means movie-making as an art and an industry, including its production techniques,
its creative artists and the distribution and exhibition of its products.

Start in unbelievable fashion

It started with a $25,000 bet, in 1877 that was a lot of money. Edward
Muybridge, an Englishman tuned American, needed to settle a bet. Some people argued
that a galloping horse had all four feet off of the ground at the same time at some point;
others said this would be impossible. No feet touching the ground; how could that be?
The problem was that galloping hooves move too fast for the eye to see. Or, maybe,
depending on your belief, just fast enough that you could see what you wanted to. To settle the bet
definitive proof was needed.

In an effort to settle the issue once and for all an experiment was set up in which a rapid sequence of
photos was taken of a running horse. When the pictures were developed it was found that the horse did
indeed have all four feet off the ground during brief moments, thus, settling the bet. But, in doing this
experiment they found out something else — something that becomes obvious from the illustrations below.
When a series of still photos are presented sequentially, an illusion of motion is created. That discovery
would soon make that $25,000 look like pocket change.


Thomas Edison and his staff developed the kinetograph, a camera using rolls of coated celluloid
film, and the Kinetoscope, a device for peep-show viewing using photographs that flipped in sequence.


Lumière brothers, France, created the first projection device, the Cinematograph.


The first movie theater, complete with luxurious accessories and a piano, was built in Pittsburgh. A
nickel was charged for admission, and the theater was called the nickelodeon.
Films had slowly been edging past the 20 minute mark, but the drive to feature-length works began with the
Italian Spectacle (1913), running nine reels or about two hours.
The American Edwin S. Porter realized and demonstrated that scenes photographed in widely separate
locales could be cut/ edited, together yet still not be confusing to the audience. His subject matter tended
toward depictions of modern life; his Life of an American Fireman (1902) and The Great Train Robbery (1903)
are among the first works to use editing as well as acting and stagecraft to tell their stories.


Successful experiments in sound effects and music.


Spoken dialogue was successfully introduced in The Jazz Singer.
Lights of New York got more popular among public.


The Motion Picture Academy of Arts and Sciences was formed and began an annual awards
Oscar Award.

Measures taken by the Film industry to beat Television

Stereophonic sound system was introduced.
Cinemascope film.
Introduction of glamour in movies.
Diverse topics/ subjects.

Motion Picture/Film in South Asia

The Lumier Brothers of France exhibited their short films in December 1895 at Grande Cafe,
Paris. The following year, they brought the show to India and held its premiere at the Watson
Hotel in Bombay on 7th July 1896.
A package of 6 films.
Raja Harishchandra (1913) – first silent feature film of subcontinent, made by Dadasaheb
1913-1930s - 200 films were produced.
Ardeshir Irani's Alam Ara (1931) – first talky film.
In Calcutta, Hira lal Sen photographed scenes from some of the plays at the Classic Theatre. Such films
were shown as added attractions after the stage performances.

Mohini Bhasmasur (1914), significant for introducing the first woman to act before the cameras – Kamala
bai Gokhale.
Madan Theatres of Calcutta produced Shirin Farhad and Laila Majnu (1931).

Legends of South Asian Film Industry
V. Shantaram

- Ayodhya ka Raja (1932)
- Admi (1939)
- Duniya Na Mane (1937)

Mehboob Khan

- Roti (early 1940s)
- Aurat (1940)
- Mother India (1957)

Bimal Roy

- Udayer Pathey (1944)
- Do Bigha Zamin (1953)

Raj Kapoor

- Aag
- Awara (1951)

Pakistan film industry’s shared-history from 1896-1947

First silent film from Lahore was The Daughter of Today released in 1924 and the inaugural Punjabi talkie
film from Lahore was Heer Ranjha in 1932.

The Daughter of Today

- Premier Film Company
- Released in: 1924
- The first ever silent film from Punjab
- Actors: A.K.Kardar, Wilayat Begum, M. Ismael, Vijay Kumar, Heera Lal, Master Ghulam Qadir, G.K.

Alam Ara

- Inaugural Urdu/Hindi Indo-Pak feature film
- Imperial Film Company
- Urdu/Hindi (124 minutes; black & white)
- Released on: Saturday, March 14, 1931 (Capital cinema Lahore)
- Actors: Zubaida (Alam Ara), Master Vitthal (Adil), J. Sushila (as Sushila), Jillo Bai, Prithviraj Kapoor,
Elizer, Wazir Mohammed Khan, Jagdish Sethi and L.V. Prasad
- Music: Ferozshah and B. Irani Heer Ranjha - First ever Punjabi feature film
- Realesed in: 1932
- Actors: Anwari Begum, Rafiq Ghazniv, Gul Hameed, Lala Yaqoob, M. Ismael, Fazal Shah, Walait Begum.


- Pancholi Art Pictures
- Released in: 1941
- Music director: Master Ghulam Haidar - Introduced baby Noor Jehan as playback singer.

Anmol Gharri

- Mehboob Production Ltd. (Bombay-Lahore)
- Urdu/Hindi
- Realesed in: 1946
- Actors: Noor Jehan, Surender, Surayya, Zahoor Raja, Leela Mishra, Anwari Begum, Bhudo Anvari,
- Music: Naushad Ali
- Lyrics: Tanvir Naqvi

Shamshad Begum (born in Lahore) was the first generation of top Punjabi film singers. (followed by
Zubaida Khanum (in the 50s) and Madam Noor Jehan (from 40s-90s), respectively).

Mohammad Rafi, famous singer of Indian film industry, was from Punjab, Lahore.

Shukat Hussain Rizvi, Director

- J U G N U, last Big "Pakistani" film before partition
- Shoukat Arts Productions
- Urdu/Hindi
- Released in: 1946
- Actors: Yousaf Khan (Dilip Kumar), Noor Jahan
- Singers: Madam Noor Jehan, Mohammad Rafi

Teri Yaad

- Released on: Saturday, August 7, 1948


- Producer and Director: Nazir
- Music: G. A. Chishti

Changes Introduced by Films

Cinema houses - a new business.
Jobs in thousands for acting, direction, music, sets, lighting, recording, cinematography etc.
Billboards all over in so much color - landscape changed.
Manifested culture and in return influenced culture – dresses, languages, living style, harmony etc.
Strong expression against hated figures in society, oppressors - at least can see on screen.
Boldness, vulgarity, obscenity – the dark side of films.


Message conveyed in order to support and spread a particular opinion or point of view, engaging
the emotions of the audience. In another manner it could be said as the planned dissemination of news,
information, special arguments, and appeals designed to influence the beliefs, thoughts, and actions of a
specific group."
The term propaganda carries many definitions. Harold Lasswell, a pioneer of propaganda studies, defines it
as "the management of collective attitudes by the manipulation of significant symbols." Like other social
scientists, he emphasizes its psychological elements: propaganda was a subconscious manipulation of
psychological symbols to accomplish secret objectives. Subsequent analysts stressed that propaganda was a
planned and deliberate act of opinion management.

Types of Propaganda

Modern practitioners of propaganda utilize various schemes to classify different types of propaganda
activities. One such categorization classifies propaganda as:
􀂃 White Propaganda
􀂃 Grey Propaganda
􀂃 Black Propaganda

Marconi recognized as radio inventor

In 1896 Guglielmo Marconi was awarded what is sometimes recognized as the world's first patent
for radio with British Patent 12039, Improvements in transmitting electrical impulses and signals and in apparatus therefor.
In 1897 he established the world's first Radio Station on the Isle of Wight, England. The same year in
the USA, some key developments in radio's early history were created and patented by Nikola Tesla. The
US Patent Office reversed its decision in 1904, awarding Guglielmo Marconi a patent for the invention of
radio, possibly influenced by Marconi's financial backers in the States, who included Thomas Edison and
Andrew Carnegie. Some believe this was done to allow the US Government to avoid having to pay the
royalties that were being claimed by Nikola Tesla for use of his patents.

Effects of Radio on society

Radio proved far more effective in mass communication as compared to the print media. The
property of radio which did not require transportation of the message drew immense attention of common
people and investors in the field of mass media. Once the radio technology was recognized as an effective
mean of communication, there was a race among companies and individuals to have their own radio facility.
Peace time
War time


Television is the process of capturing photographic images, converting them into electrical
impulses, and then transmitting the signal to a decoding receiver. Conventional transmission is by means of
electromagnetic radiation, using the methods of radio.
Among the technical developments that have come to dominate our lives, television is surely one of the top
few. In the developed world, the average household watches television for seven hours per day, which
helps to explain why news, sports, and educational entities, as well as advertisers, value the device for

TV changes some basic concepts

TV is largely responsible for bringing about so many social, cultural and economic changes- and
that too with rapid speed, and is considered as one major factor to help globalize human thinking and
understanding on various matters by fully exploiting all the elements possible in visual communication, or
say broadcasting. More on this aspect will be discussed in a coming lecture.
By 1935, mechanical systems for transmitting black-and-white images were replaced completely by
electronic methods that could generate hundreds of horizontal bands at 30 frames per second. Vladimir K.
Zworykin, a Russian immigrant who first worked for Westinghouse, patented an electronic camera tube
based on the cathode tube. Philo T. Farnsworth and Allen B. Dumont, both Americans, developed a pickup
tube that became the home television receiver by 1939.
There are currently 3 main television transmission standards used throughout the world:

NTSC - National Television Standards Committee. The oldest existing standard, developed in the USA.
First used in 1954. Consists of 525 horizontal lines of display and 60 vertical lines.

SECAM - Système Électronique pour Couleur avec Mémoire. Developed in France. First used in 1967. A
625-line vertical, 50-line horizontal display.

PAL - Phase Alternating Line. Developed by German engineer Walter Bruch who patented his invention
1963 and the first commercial application of the PAL system was in August 1967. Also a 625/50-line
display and alternative of NTSC. Proponents call it
"Perfection At Last."

Television in Pakistan
Evening Transmission only

TV broadcast was limit to five hours, from 6 pm to 11 pm with one weekly holiday on Monday.
People would sit in front of the set from the signature tune, women would finish household errands,
children doing their homework much before the first images of the day, usually recitation from the holy
Quran. Hardly a person would move away till the national anthem was played to mark end of the day’s
transmission. Due to the immense interest for watching the moving images and the restricted timings of the
transmission, the work-schedule of many was now changed.

Live Broadcast

The most prominent feature of PTV’s early years was the live transmission for it did not have the
recording facilities. It was not the news to be read in real time only, but the talks, plays and music was also
broadcast live. It was a unique experience for all the directors, producers, performers and the technical staff.
Hardly one can imagine now that there had been such an exceptional time in PTV’s life.
Many radio artists seemed moving to and fro between radio station and the PTV building next door to accomplish the task of
live transmission and rehearsals.

PTV and the unforgettable War of Sept. 1965

The September 1965 war with India was a testing time for the whole nation. Nothing was above
the country’s defense. The PTV Lahore station did the heroics it still gets credit for. Its OB teams went to
the borders and captured some incredible images of the battlefield. Nothing more could have excited people
seeing with their own eyes Pakistan Army’s jawans invading Indian posts, destroying them and capturing
enemy’s land across the border. With madam Noor Jahan’s spirited national songs in the backdrop, the
PTV’s showings worked as a catalyst to fuel the passion for national defense.

PTV goes colored

Though the Islamic conference coverage was very successful, many thought it would have been far
better had it been a colored transmission. Another reason to do away with the black and white broadcast
was that in most part of the world the TV transmission was getting colored and companies were now not
making parts for the equipment used in the B/W transmission. The day came soon when in 1976
COLOUR TRANSMISSION STARTED on experimental basis. Regular Color transmission started from
Feb 18, 1982.

Effects of television on society

Television broadcast has broad effects on the society all around the world. The strong verbal and
non verbal combination and the facility to highlight different subject matters created one of the most
important impressions in mass media.
There are so many angles to see as to what extent TV has brought about changes in daily life of people and
the nations as well.
Here we will see some of the key changes affected by TV transmissions in general.
Seeing is believing
Changes in timings
Household entity and change in habits
Increasing general know-how
Cultural changes and influences
Institutional transformation

Public Relations

Aspect of communications that involves promoting a desirable image for a person or group seeking
public attention.
Public relations (PR) is the art of managing communication between an organization and its key
publics to build, manage and sustain a positive image.
One of the earliest definitions of PR was coined by Edward Bernays. According to him, "Public
Relations is a management function which tabulates public attitudes, defines the policies,
procedures and interest of an organization followed by executing a program of action to earn
public understanding and acceptance. "
According to two American PR professionals Scott M. Cutlips and Allen H. Center, "PR is a
planned effort to influence opinion through good character and responsible performance based
upon mutual satisfactory two-way communication".


Public relations describes the various methods a company uses to disseminate messages about its
products, services, or overall image to its customers, employees, stockholders, suppliers, or other interested
members of the community. The point of public relations is to make the public think favorably about the
company and its offerings.

Tools employed for PR

Commonly used tools of public relations include:
News releases
Press conferences
Speaking engagements
Community service programs

Public relations involves

Evaluation of public attitudes and opinions.
Formulation and implementation of an organization's procedures and policy regarding
communication with its publics.
Coordination of communications programs.
Developing rapport and good-will through a two way communication process.
Fostering a positive relationship between an organization and its public constituents.


Property development & real estate PR
Retail sector PR
Agricultural PR
Food service PR
Health care PR
Technology/IT PR
Public affairs PR
On-line PR
Financial/investor relations
Not-for-profit PR
Crisis communication PR

Lobby groups

Lobby groups are established to influence government policy, corporate policy, or public opinion.
These groups purport to represent a particular interest. When a lobby group hides its true purpose and
support base it is known as a front group.


Creating an artificial "grassroots" movement is known as astroturfing. A typical example would be
the writing of letters to multiple newspaper editors under different names to express an opinion on an issue,
creating the impression of widespread public feeling but being controlled by one central entity.


In public relations, spin is a, sometimes critical term signifying a heavily biased portrayal in one's
own favor of an event or situation. While traditional public relations may also rely on creative presentation
of the facts, "spin" often, though not always, implies, deceptive and/or highly manipulative tactics.
Politicians are often accused of spin by commentators and political opponents, when they produce a
counter argument or position.

Advertising beyond Print Media
Covert advertising

It is embedded in other entertainment media is known as product placement.
A more recent version of this is advertising in film, by having a main character use an item or other of a
definite brand - an example is in the movie Minority Report, where Tom Cruise's character Tom Anderton
owns a computer with the Nokia logo clearly written in the top corner, or his watch engraved with the
Bulgari logo. Another example of advertising in film is in I, Robot, where main character played by Will Smith
mentions his Converse shoes several times, calling them "classics," because the film is set far in the future.
Cadillac chose to advertise in the movie The Matrix Reloaded, which as a result contained many scenes in
which Cadillac cars were used. Similarly, product placement for Omega Watches, BMW and Aston-Martin
cars are featured in recent James Bond films, most notably, Casino Royale.

Advertising Media—Audio

The most common audio advertising media is FM radio. Placement of an advertisement on FM
radio costs about as much as an advertisement placed in a metropolitan newspaper. However, radio is more
dynamic than print alternatives because it allows the advertiser essentially to talk with the consumer. Indeed,
many small business consultants believe that an entertaining and informative radio advertising campaign can
be a major asset. Nonetheless, some analysts contend that small business owners should proceed cautiously
before deciding to rely exclusively on radio advertising. Indeed, most businesses incorporate a media mix
when attempting to sell their products or services, utilizing radio advertising in concert with print and other
advertising media. The key for small business owners is to study what types of advertising best suits their
products and services and to use that media to spearhead their advertising campaign.


The TV commercial is generally considered the most effective mass-market advertising format and
this is reflected by the high prices TV networks charge for commercial airtime during popular TV events.
The annual Super Bowl football game in the United States is known as much for its commercial
advertisements as for the game itself, and the average cost of a single thirty-second TV spot during this
game has reached $2.5 million (as of 2006).
Virtual advertisements may be inserted into regular television programming through computer graphics. It
is typically inserted into otherwise blank backdrops or used to replace local billboards that are not relevant
to the remote broadcast audience. More controversially, virtual billboards may be inserted into the
background where none existing in real-life. Virtual product placement is also possible. Increasingly, other
mediums such as those discussed below are overtaking television due to a shift towards consumer's usage of
the Internet.

Advertising Evaluation

Once the advertising campaign is over, companies normally evaluate it compared to the established
goals. An effective tactic in measuring the usefulness of the advertising campaign is to measure the pre-and
post-sales of the company's product. In order to make this more effective, some companies divide up the
country into regions and run the advertising campaigns only in some areas. The different geographic areas
are then compared (advertising versus non-advertising), and a detailed analysis is performed to provide an
evaluation of the campaign's effectiveness. Depending on the results, a company will modify future
advertising efforts in order to maximize effectiveness.

Advertising Campaign

An advertising campaign is a series of advertisement messages that share a single idea and theme
which make up an integrated marketing communication (IMC). Advertising campaigns appear in different
media across a specific time frame.
The critical part of making an advertising campaign is determining a campaign theme, as it sets the tone for the
individual advertisements and other forms of marketing communications that will be used. The campaign
theme is the central message that will be communicated in the promotional activities. The campaign themes
are usually developed with the intention of being used for a substantial period but many of them are short
lived due to factors such as being ineffective or market conditions and/or competition in the marketplace.

Forms of Advertising

Advertising can take a number of forms, including advocacy, comparative, cooperative, and directmail,
informational, institutional, outdoor, persuasive, product, reminder, point-of-purchase, and specialty
Advocacy Advertising
Comparative Advertising
Cooperative Advertising
Direct-Mail Advertising
Informational Advertising
Institutional Advertising
Outdoor Advertising
Persuasive Advertising
Product Advertising
Reminder Advertising
Point-of-Purchase Advertising
Specialty Advertising

Advertising Objectives

Advertising objectives are the communication tasks to be accomplished with specific customers
that a company is trying to reach during a particular time frame. A company that advertises usually strives to
achieve one of four advertising objectives: trial, continuity, brand switching, and switchback. Which of the
four advertising objectives is selected usually depends on where the product is in its life cycle.

Public perception of the medium

As advertising and marketing efforts become increasingly ubiquitous in modern Western societies,
the industry has come under criticism of culture jamming which criticizes the media and consumerism using
advertising's own techniques. The industry is accused of being one of the engines powering a convoluted
economic mass production system which promotes consumption. Recognizing the social impact of
advertising, Media-watch-uk, a British special interest group, works to educate consumers about how they
can register their concerns with advertisers and regulators. It has developed educational materials for use in
schools. The award-winning book, Made You Look How Advertising Works and Why You Should Know, by
former Media-watch (a feminist organisation founded by Ann Simonton not linked to media-watch-uk)
president Shari Graydon, provides context for these issues for young readers.

Media Theories

The term media theory refers to a model that explains the relationship between media and social
reality. Media as an enterprise holds a unique status – from one way it is like an industry which gives its
products and service and earn money but from another way media is supposed to talk about society, people,
attitude, interaction, guidance and the most crucial and sensitive, criticism.
The criticism media does-on individuals, business sector and the governments, pinches many in many ways.
If media does not perform this function, it is rendered redundant.
Authoritarian Theory
Libertarian Theory
Soviet Theory
Social Responsibility Theory

New Media
New Media is a term that describes traditional forms of media that have been transformed by
advancements in digital technology and digital computing.

What is classed as New Media?

Web Sites including Blogs
Electronic kiosks
Virtual worlds
Interactive Television
Internet Telephony
Hypertext Fiction

Disadvantages in the Use of New Media

While most advertising and marketing agencies have cited the use of New Media as a positive force
in reaching new and old customers alike, a prevalent concern amongst companies that wish to remain
competitive in today's digital markets is the rapid rate at which new media changes, and can be changed
from any number of sources. While the new level of communication between customers and those
providing any kind of service is generally beneficial, it also allows for more methods by which unhappy
consumers may disproportionately voice their concerns, in relation to their actual overall sampling size
amongst consumers as a whole.
Another negative result of the implementation of new media advertising and marketing is generally regarded
as being cost-related. As New Media forms are almost exclusively digital in nature, the cost of initial
establishment and then the upkeep of the equipment, resources, and manpower needed may pose a
significant problem for smaller businesses. It has been said that in this way, the worldwide trend towards
reliance on New Media for such means may very well be a move towards further corporate globalization,
and the downfall of smaller businesses that can't compete with such new technological means.

Globalization of Media

Globalization is a buzz word these days. It is more heard in the arena of economics where
transnational corporations are widening their scope of activities and earning massively. So strong is the
thrust for expansionism by the world corporate sectors that governments and other international
organizations like the UNO etc also at times seem to be only working for the cause of this sector. The wave
of globalization is not without criticism such as it is designed to make a few rich and the rest poor not only
in the financial sense but also culturally. The debate is raging high.

Media Mergence

Every time a new technology is introduced in the sphere of mass media and a new media organ is
created, there appears a situation where new form of mass communication gets its source material from the
media organs already in vogue.
The mediated communication which is always based on certain technology also needs contents which must
be made the main area of mass communication. Hardly there has been a situation when a new technology
has also brought altogether new topics to be talked about with the help of new science.

From Print to Electronic Amalgamation

Print media had been enjoying a unique distinction in the society for almost four hundred years
when in the first quarter of the 20th century radio was introduced on the basis of electromagnetic waves
technology. It was first time that the people experienced a wireless communication at massive scale.
Radio brought with it listening pleasure – music, talks and news etc. But the nature of contents in news, talk
shows, discussions, educational programmes and comments was not new. More or less it was dealing with
the same content people had been familiar with over the years because of print media. The only change was
the new technology. Contents were the same. So one can say that radio was a mergence of print and
electronic media as far content were concerned.

Radio, TV mergence

Although TV was also based on radio wave technology, the carrying of images through
electromagnetic waves gave it a unique distinction and in the eyes of common people TV has been a
different entity.
But on the content side, TV picked many ideas from radio formats like group discussions, musical
programmes, and commentary on sporting events, and presentation of news. The changes were only due to
presence of images.

TV and computer getting one - IPT (Internet protocol TV)

In the third quarter of the 20th century scientists were successful in using the digital technology for
carrying contents which were earlier carried only through analog techniques. This led to a marriage between
the analog and digital technologies and it is here that the subject of mergence of media has emerged.
This new combination is exclusive in the sense that it not only brings the contents of sound and images
together and all the formats of programme remain intact, it at the same time brings the two technologies at
one point.
In coming years you would be able to use your computer as TV and if you desire, TV set could also be used
as computer because most TV sets manufactured after 2006, or so, would carry a chip which would enable
decoding of messages transmitted through digital technology.
So, when we say that the media will converge, we mean that current television shows will merge into a
hybrid with World Wide Web style content. Television shows will have other types of media like text
merged into them, and World Wide Web pages will begin to be temporal entities that tell a story. Another
way of looking at this is that both your television and your computer will be running a similar super browser
which will allow the same content to be viewed on both devices. Also, to say that the two converge it is not
enough to say that you will be able to watch television on your computer-- that merely means that television
content is a sub-set of computer content and is already possible today. For the two to truly converge the
content that can be received by both devices should be the same.
When we say that the media will not converge, we mean that television shows and world wide web content
will remain distinct media forms, and that you will use your television for watching television shows, and
your computer to view and browse web content. While both media types may have evolved, they will
remain different from one another.

Criticism on Media

Conceals more than it reveals
Damages cultural and family traditions
Sold to interest groups
Commercialism-trend is to mislead people
Pictures of killings – unethical
Private life, obscenity
Blackmails governments

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