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International promotions mix:

Is the total marketing communications program and comprises of five major promotional tools, that are;

- any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or
services by an identified sponsor

Personal selling
- personal presentation by the firm’s sales force for the purpose of making sales &
building customer relations

Direct marketing
- use of mail, telephone, internet, and other non-personal contact tools to
communicate with customers and prospects

Sales promotion - short-term incentives to encourage the purchase or sale of a product or service

Public Relationing
- building good relations with the company’s various publics, building up a
good “corporate image” & handling unfavorable events
Developing effective international communications:
Identifying first the target audience (individuals, groups, special publics or general public).
Target audience will heavily affect the communicator’s decision:
– on what will be said
– how it will be said
– when it will be said
– where it will be said
– who will say it

Factors influencing the setting international promotion mix:

• type of product / market
• size / dispersion of market
• push versus pull strategy
• buyer readiness stage
• product lifecycle stage
• availability of media
• market sophistication
• nature & level of competition / clutter
• company’s market position / objectives
• company’s resources
• regulations

Changing face of international marketing communications:

shifting away from mass marketing to focused marketing
growth of direct marketing

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direct mail & catalogue marketing
television direct marketing (1-900-)
home shopping channels
online shopping (using computer)
internet (global reach)
in-house, house-to-house selling

Socially responsible marketing communication needed:

- avoid fake & deceptive ads
- refrain from making exaggerated claims
- do not use bait & switch advertising
- avoid irritants (faxes, e-mails, phone calls)
- refrain from invasion of privacy
- avoid exploiting emotions (love, fear, deprivation)

International advertising environment:

- Involves complexities of cross-cultural communications
- Consumer values and behavior patterns vary from one country to another (language, level of
context needed, life styles, values, norms & customs, ethics & moral standards, taboos)
- Differences in media and their availability
- Differences in regulations and market environment (economic, cultural, demographic,

Advertising in developed countries:

- Emphasize consumer goods, their retailing and advertising through mass media
- Heavy advertising and economic development go hand in hand
- Restrictions in some countries

Advertising in developing countries:

- Many less developed countries are sellers’ market
- Most product markets are geographically limited
- Media not highly developed
- Advertising plays a less significant role in marketing
- Do not have many resources to allocate for advertising

Advantages of international standardized advertising:

– economies of scale in production & distribution
– lower planning & control costs
– lower advertising production costs
– ability to exploit good ideas on worldwide basis
– ability to introduce new products worldwide quickly
– a consistent international brand / company image
– simplification of coordination and control of advertising programs
– targets global consumer segments

Constraints on standardizing international advertisements:

language and attitude differences
media availability and infrastructure
economic differences
local distributors
differences in tastes & attitudes
difference in cultures
difference in needs & usage patterns
difference in lifestyles
difference in perception of product
difference in degree of market maturity
difference in advertising regulations
advertising of “vice products” and pharmaceuticals
comparative advertisements (comparing with other brands – disallowed or a must to
advertising towards children -disallowed
When standardized advertising is appropriate:
- brands that can be adapted for a visual appeal that avoid the problem of trying to translate words
- brands that are promoted with image campaign based on themes that play universal appeal
- new high-tech products
- many luxury products targeted at rich

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