MEASURING ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE
This topic concern with various is for measuring the performance
of an organization.
Measuring organizational performance
To determine that which objectives are most important in the
evaluation of strategies can be difficult.
Strategy evaluation is based on both quantitative and
qualitative criteria. Selecting the exact set of criteria
for evaluating strategies depends on a particular organization's
size, industry, strategies, and management
philosophy. An organization pursuing a retrenchment strategy,
for example, could have an entirely
different set of evaluative criteria from an organization
pursuing a market-development strategy.
Quantitative criteria commonly used to evaluate strategies are
financial ratios, which strategists use to
make three critical comparisons: (1) comparing the firm's
performance over different time periods, (2)
comparing the firm's performance to competitors', and (3)
comparing the firm's performance to industry
averages. Some key financial ratios that are particularly useful
as criteria for strategy evaluation are as
1. Return on investment
2. Return on equity
3. Profit margin
4. Market share
5. Debt to equity
6. Earnings per share
7. Sales growth
8. Asset growth
But there are some potential problems associated with using
quantitative criteria for evaluating strategies.
First, most quantitative criteria are geared to annual
objectives rather than long-term objectives. Also,
different accounting methods can provide different results on
many quantitative criteria. Third, intuitive
judgments are almost always involved in deriving quantitative
criteria. For these and other reasons,
qualitative criteria are also important in evaluating
strategies. Human factors such as high absenteeism and
turnover rates, poor production quality and quantity rates, or
low employee satisfaction can be underlying
causes of declining performance. Marketing, finance/accounting,
R&D, or computer information systems
factors can also cause financial problems. Seymour Tilles
identified six qualitative questions that are useful
in evaluating strategies:
1. Is the strategy internally consistent?
2. Is the strategy consistent with the environment?
3. Is the strategy appropriate in view of available resources?
4. Does the strategy involve an acceptable degree of risk?
5. Does the strategy have an appropriate time framework?
6. Is the strategy workable?
Some additional key questions that reveal the need for
qualitative or intuitive judgments in strategy
evaluation are as follows:
1. How good is the firm's balance of investments between
high-risk and low-risk projects?
2. How good is the firm's balance of investments between
long-term and short-term projects?
3. How good is the firm's balance of investments between
slow-growing markets and fast-growing
4. How good is the firm's balance of investments among different
5. To what extent are the firm's alternative strategies socially
6. What are the relationships among the firm's key internal and
external strategic factors?
7. How are major competitors likely to respond to particular
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