The main objective of this chapter to enable to students about
concern marketing issue such marketing
segmentation, marketing mix and product positioning relating to
Market segmentation is the process in
of grouping a
subgroups. This is not something that is arbitrarily imposed on
it is derived from the recognition
that the total market is often made up of submarkets (called
'segments'). These segments are
within (i.e. people in the segment are similar to each other in
Because of this intra-group similarity, they are likely to
respond somewhat similarly to a given
strategy. That is, they
are likely to have similar feeling and ideas about a
comprised of a
sold at a given price,
in a certain way, and
in a certain way.
The Need for Market Segmentation
The marketing concept calls for understanding customers and
satisfying their needs better than the
competition. But different customers have different needs, and
it rarely is possible to satisfy all customers
by treating them alike.
Mass marketing refers
to treatment of the market as a homogenous group and offering the same
marketing mix to all customers. Mass marketing allows economies
of scale to be realized through mass
production, mass distribution, and mass communication. The
drawback of mass marketing is that
customer needs and preferences differ and the same offering is
unlikely to be viewed as optimal by all
customers. If firms ignored the differing customer needs,
another firm likely would enter the market with
a product that serves a specific group, and the incumbent firms
would lose those customers.
Target marketing on
the other hand recognizes the diversity of customers and does not try to please
of them with the same offering. The first step in target
marketing is to identify different market segments
and their needs.
The requirements for successful segmentation are:
• Homogeneity within the
• Heterogeneity between
• Segments are
• Segments are
• Segment is large enough
to be profitable.....
Currently a college student the marketing mix is now being
introduced as the Four Ps of the Marketing
Mix; Product, Place, Promotion, Price. Product (service) is
whatever it may be that is being sold/marketed.
Price refers to not only the actually price but also price
elasticity. Place has evidently replaced distribution
simply by where or what area the marketing campaign is going to
cover. Today the idea of place is not
limited to geographic profiling but also demographics and other
categorizing variables. This has only
occurred over the last ten years with the expansion of internet
use and its ability to target specific types of
people and not just people in a geographic area. Promotion
simply refers to what media/medium vehicle
will deliver the message and what the overall marketing
strategy(s) is offering as a benefit.
Bases for Segmentation in Consumer Markets
Consumer markets can be segmented on the following customer
The following are some examples of geographic variables often
used in segmentation.
• Region: by continent,
country, state, or even neighborhood
• Size of metropolitan
area: segmented according to size of population
• Population density:
often classified as urban, suburban, or rural
• Climate: according to
weather patterns common to certain geographic regions
Some demographic segmentation variables include:
• Family size
• Family lifecycle
baby-boomers, Generation X, etc.
• Social class
Many of these variables have standard categories for their
values. For example, family lifecycle often is
expressed as bachelor, married with no children (DINKS: Double
Income, No Kids), full-nest, emptynest,
or solitary survivor. Some of these categories have several
stages, for example, full-nest I, II, or III
depending on the age of the children.
Psychographic segmentation groups customers according to their
lifestyle. Activities, interests, and
opinions (AIO) surveys are one tool for measuring lifestyle.
Some psychographic variables include:
Behavioral segmentation is based on actual customer behavior
toward products. Some behavioralistic
• Benefits sought
• Usage rate
• Brand loyalty
• User status: potential,
first-time, regular, etc.
• Readiness to buy
• Occasions: holidays and
events that stimulate purchases
Behavioral segmentation has the advantage of using variables
that are closely related to the product itself.
It is a fairly direct starting point for market segmentation.
are combined to give an in-depth understanding of
a segment, this is referred to
as depth segmentation. When enough information is combined to
create a clear picture of a typical
member of a segment, this is referred to as a
When the profile
is limited to demographic
variables it is called a
(typically shortened to "a demographic"). A
commonly used in determining a profile is
Market segmentation Link with strategy implementation
Market segmentation is widely used in implementing strategies,
especially for small and specialized firms.
Market segmentation can be defined as the subdividing of a
market into distinct subsets of customers
according to needs and buying habits.
Market segmentation is an important variable in strategy
implementation for at least three major reasons.
First, strategies such as market development, product
development, market penetration, and diversification
require increased sales through new markets and products. To
implement these strategies successfully, new
or improved market-segmentation approaches are required. Second,
market segmentation allows a firm to
operate with limited resources because mass production, mass
distribution, and mass advertising are not
required. Market segmentation can enable a small firm to compete
successfully with a large firm by
maximizing per-unit profits and per-segment sales. Finally,
market segmentation decisions directly affect
marketing mix variables:
product, place, promotion, and price