Lecture 39 is a second review and is mainly to review what ever we covered
so far from lectures 25 to
38. Second part of our course was mainly focusing the team dynamics part. We
tried to understand
group, team and their dynamics.
We started our lecture number 25 with group dynamics.
Group - two or more people with common interests or objectives.
Team - a small number of people with complementary skills who are
committed to a common mission,
performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually
A team is a formal work group in which there is a high level of
interaction among group members who
work intensely together to achieve a common goal. A group whose members work
intensely with each
other to achieve a specific, common goal or objective is known as Team. All
teams are groups but not
all groups are teams.
– Teams often are difficult to form.
– It takes time for members to learn how to
A group/team is effective when it satisfies three criteria:
o Production output: the product
of the group’s work must meet or exceed standards of quality
o Member satisfaction:
membership in the group must provide people with short-term
satisfaction and facilitate their long-term growth and development
o Capacity for continued
cooperation: how the group completes a task should maintain or
enhance the group’s ability to work together; groups that don’t cooperate cannot
Groups versus Teams:
_ All teams are groups
_ Some groups are just people
_ Teams have task
interdependence whereas some groups do not..
Why Rely on Teams? Because as compared with individuals working alone,
teams tend to
o Make better decisions
o Make better products and services due
to more knowledge and expertise
We also discussed different development stages of group formation.
Stages of Group Development: five stage of group development are
Types of Teams
Benefits of Teams
Synergy: The creation of a whole greater than or equal to the sum of its
Why Teams Are Good for Organizations
o More resources for problem
o Improved creativity and innovation
o Improved quality of decision making
o Greater commitments to tasks
o Increased motivation of members
o Better control and work discipline
Characteristics of High Performance Teams
o Clear goals
o Results-driven structure
o Competent team members
o Unified commitments
o Collaborative climate
o Standards of excellence
Team: A team is a formal work group in which there is a high level of
interaction and interdependence
among group members who work intensely together to achieve a common goal.
Teamwork: is the process of people actively working together to
accomplish common goals.
Advantages and disadvantages of having team.
o Wider range of knowledge,
o Effective way to build consensus
o Effective way to communicate
o Dominant people
o Status differential
How Do We Measure Team Effectiveness? Effective teams have confidence in
believe they can succeed—this is team efficacy. Success breeds success.
Management can increase
team efficacy by helping the team to achieve small successes and skill training.
Small successes build team confidence. The greater the abilities of team
members, more the likelihood
that the team will develop confidence and the capability to deliver that
confidence. We can measure the
team effectiveness by measuring their…
o Learning/ growth & development
o Integration with the rest of the
Leaders need to put extra efforts to convert individuals into a performing team.
Turning Individuals into Team Players:
It starts with the selection of right type of people, training them and
linking the performance with
proper reward system.
“NONE OF US IS AS SMART AS ALL OF US”
o When teams operate effectively,
they can solve more problems, make better decisions and be
o “Team are unique; dynamic, complex
and ever changing.” - Ken Blanchard, author of “the one
Leadership success requires: An understanding of group behavior. The
ability to tap the constructive
power of teams
o Get the right people.
o Determine the Challenge.
o Prepare the Team Leader.
o Add value.
o See the Big picture.
Build and Support the Team
o Leadership Skills
o Team Building Strategies
o Team Logistics
Team Building:-The Team Leader’s Responsibility
A good team leader
o Fosters communication among team
o Seeks to build bonds among team
members (work together, meet together, get to know
o Creates positive environment for
collective problem solving and support; creates
atmosphere in which differing opinions are valued but in which clear decisions
o Is alert to cliques, bickering, etc.
and acts to address them; maintains atmosphere in which
sexual, racial, ethnic, national or other harassment is not acceptable
o Monitors individual staff members for
signs of stress and provides basic support
o Models good individual stress
o Seeks to base expatriate/staff
interactions on mutual respect, transparency, and partnership
Team Building:-The Organizational Responsibility
o The Organization identifies
team-building skills as an essential qualification for prospective
o The Organization trains staff and
managers in team work skills (e.g., conflict management)
o The Organization helps build team
cohesion (e.g., through common experiences such as
safety and security training)
o The Organization regularly reviews
team functioning and has policies for addressing the
problems of dysfunctional teams and of staff members who have difficulty
Strategies for Team Building
o Establish common goals
o Understand each others role in the
o Find occasions to celebrate
o Recognise effort
o Improve communication
Factors Affecting Teams
o Work Design
o Team Composition
Team Based Organization
Based on the belief that organizational goals will be achieved not by
individuals working together
separately, but by groups of people who share responsibility for outcomes and
who work efficiently and
effectively in teams.
Characteristics of Traditional Vs Team-based Organizations
Individual command structures Collective structures
Manager controls Team monitors
Vertical hierarchy Horizontal integration
Stability and uniformity Change and flexibility
One best way to organize Organization-specific
Managers manage Self-managing teams
Benefits of Teams in Organizations:
_ Enhanced Performance:
Teams may take many forms, i.e. including improved productivity,
quality, and customer service such the enhancements result from pooling
individual efforts in
new ways and continuously striving to improve for the benefit of the team.
_ Employee Benefits:
Teams always provide the sense of self-control, human dignity,
identification with work, and sense of self-worth and self-fulfillment for which
seem to strive.
_ Reduced Costs: Through
empowered teams, an organization can reduce scrap, make fewer
errors, file fewer worker compensation claims, and reduce absenteeism and
resulting in significant cost reductions.
Enhancements: Teams improvements in team results a move from a
hierarchically based, directive culture to a team-based culture include
creativity, and flexibility in the organization.
Benefits of Team-based Organization:
Profitability and long term viability organization is increased due to its
working as team based
organization. Other benefits of team based organizations are listed bellow.
o Efficient Process
o Flexible Response to change
o Improve Effectiveness
o Reduce Cost
o Increase Innovation
o Customer Involvement
o Employee commitment
o Skill utilization
Possible Pitfalls in the Introduction of Team Based Organization (TBO)
o Introducing teams regardless of
o Introducing teams without changing
o Failing to train for TBO
o Not providing expert support
o Failure of communication within, with
and between teams
o Failure to establish and support TBO
Roles of a Leader in the Team-Based Organization
o Defining the team’s mission
o Building trust and inspiring teamwork
o Coaching team members and group
members toward higher levels of performance
o Serving as a model of teamwork,
including power sharing
o Facilitating and supporting team’s
o Expanding the team’s capabilities
o Creating a team identity
o Emphasizing pride in being
o Anticipating and influencing change
o Inspiring the team toward higher
levels of performance
o Enabling and empowering group members
to accomplish their work
o Selecting team-oriented members
o Using technology that facilitates
Decision Making and Decision Making Process:
A decision is a choice made from two or more alternatives. The
decision-making process is
recognizing and defining the nature of a decision situation, identifying
alternatives, choosing the “best”
alternative, and putting it into practice. An effective decision is one that
optimizes some set of factors
such as profits, sales, employee welfare, and market share. Managers make
decisions about both
problems and opportunities.
Problem Solving Vs Decision Making
o Problem solving: finding the root
cause of a deviation (cause analysis)
o Decision making: choosing from
alternative courses of action (choice analysis)
Problem solving --------------- Decision making
Types of Decisions:
Programmed Decisions: A decision that is a fairly structured decision or
recurs with some frequency
or both. Example: Starting your car in the morning.
Non-programmed decisions: A decision that is relatively unstructured and
occurs much less often than
a programmed decision. Example: Choosing a vacation destination.
Intuitive decision making: Managers also regularly use their intuition.
Intuitive decision making is a
subconscious process of making decisions on the basis of experience and
o Making decisions on the basis of gut
feeling doesn’t necessarily happen independently of rational
analysis; the two complement each other.
o Although intuitive decision making
will not replace the rational decision-making process, it does
play an important role in managerial decision making
Roadblocks to Good Decision Making
o Human Cognition
o Our mental ability to comprehend
and understand something
o Human Perception
o Difficulty isolating problems
o Tend to think of only narrow range of
o Human Bias
o Tendency to shape responses based
on stereotypes, memory, and current position
Decision-Making and Technology: In today’s completive world Information
technology can also help
and support the decision-making. Different decision making tools are available
for manager and leaders
to use in practical life.
Team Decision Making:
Use Individual Decision Making When:
o You have the information to make
a good decision
o The situation is urgent
o Subordinates are already committed or
their commitment doesn’t matter
Use Team/Group For Decision Making When:
o No one knows the answer or the
expertise is in the group
o You want to increase the commitment
o The situation is not urgent in
the sense that it requires an immediate response
o You, as manager/leader, can live with
Group/Team Decision Making
o More information & knowledge are
o More alternatives are likely to be
o More acceptance of the final decision
o Enhanced communication of the
decision may result better decisions
o The process takes longer, so it is
o Compromise decisions due to
indecisiveness may emerge
o One person may dominate the group
Groupthink may occur
Methods of Group/Team Decision Making (Johnson & Johnson, 1991)
o Decision by authority without
o Expert member
o Average of member’s opinions
o Decision by authority after
o Majority control
o Minority control
Decisions made in groups can be made by one of four main methods.
o Unilaterally by an individual
o By simple majority vote
o By consensus – everyone agreeing to
support the conclusion
o Subgroup of team
Which one is the best? There is no “best”. Different types fit best for
Remember. Some decisions will be good! Some decisions will be bad! BUT
You will learn something
from every decision you make!!!
Communication is the process by which a person, group, or organization (the
sender) transmits some
type of information (the message) to another person, group or organization (the
receiver) using some
Communication encompasses both interpersonal communication (between two
or more people) and
organizational communication (all the patterns, networks, and system of
communication within an
Communication and Leadership: The importance of effective communication
overemphasized because everything a manager/leader does involves communicating.
are also effective communicators. To be effective, the leader must synchronize
verbal and nonverbal
behavior Technology has had also a meaningful impact on leaders’ communication
o Effective leaders are also effective
o To be effective, the leader must
synchronize verbal and nonverbal behavior
o Technology has had a meaningful
impact on leaders’ communication and coordination
Guidelines to Team Communication:
o Be specific: include facts
and details to avoid being unclear
o Be accurate: as much as
possible be sure that the information you are giving is true and reliable.
o Be honest: be truthful with
those you are communicating with and do not use questionable
o Be logical: make sure messages
are easy to follow
o Be complete: give all needed
information in regards to your ideas.
o Be concise: be brief- not
o Be relevant: stay on task and
give information that is needed.
o Ask for feedback: have
recipients give comments on information.
Responsibilities of Team Members
o Open minded
o Listen to what is being said
o Give feedback to what is being said
o Make sure all team members have a
chance to communicate their ideas.
o If decisions need to be made discuss
pros and cons, and decide best option for TEAM.
o Take ownership for what you say.
o Take responsibility for making sure
you are heard and understood.
o Use terminology and examples that
your audience understands.
o Be aware of body language.
o Always work to maintain the trust and
confidence of those with whom you are
Conflict in Team: The process in which one party perceives that its
interests are being opposed or
negatively affected by another party.
o Perceived by the parties
o Parties are in opposition to one
o At least one party is blocking the
goal attainment of the other party
o Goals can be tangible or
o Task Achievement
There are several common themes which underlie most definitions:
o The parties to it must perceive
o Commonalties in the definitions are
opposition or incompatibility and some form of
Many people and organizations view conflict as a negative, or something to be
avoided. Yet conflict,
differences, or disagreements are a natural result of people working together.
Also, without conflict,
teams can become complacent and not perform at optimum levels. The challenge
then becomes, how
should the team be prepared for this stage of their existence, and how should
the team leader facilitate
Sources of Conflict
o Goal Incompatibility
o Different Values and Beliefs
o Task Interdependence
o Scarce Resources
o Communication Problems
o Perceived personal threats
o Perceived threat to the organization
o Personal, social, cultural
Types of Conflict:
o Emotional – is personal,
defensive, and resentful. Also known a A-type or affective.
o Cognitive - is largely
depersonalized, it consists of argumentation about the merits of
ideas, plans, and projects. Known as C-type. Often an effective stimulate to
We can have a different type of conflict classification with reference to
o Task conflict: Conflict over
content and goals of the work. Low to moderate levels can be
o Relationship conflict:
Conflict based on interpersonal relationships. Almost always
o Process conflict: Conflict
over how work gets done. Low levels can be acceptable
We can also have relationship conflict (A-type conflict) and task
conflict (C-type conflict). We need to
put efforts for transforming relationship into task conflict. This can be done
o Agree on common goal or shared vision
o Create a place for conflict and get
it out in the open
o Training in task conflict
We can also have conflicts known as;
o A person having tension or stress
o often due to over competing roles
o between 2 or more people,
o disagreement, values or styles don’t
o Miscommunication occurs
o Arises within one group
o arises between groups over
The Conflict Process:
o Potential opposition
o Cognition and personalization
Steps to Resolve Conflict
o Identify the Problem:
separate it from the people involved—use cause and effect analysis
o Gather and Analyze Data:
o Clarify the Interests of Parties:
as opposed to the positions of parties
o Determine Objective Criteria to
Evaluate Fairness of Outcomes boundary conditions
o Identify New and Creative Options:
to resolve the conflict
o Choose an Option: using team
People Factors That Affect the Development of the Conflict:
o Needs and wants
o Past experience
Other Factors That Affect the Development of the Conflict:
o Management culture
o Stage of development of the
o Organizational structures
o State of business
Consequences of Conflict
Conflict Resolution Techniques:
o Withholding or withdrawing
o Smoothing over/reassuring
Three Styles of Resolving Conflict:
Win-Lose: strategies used are power, dominance, forcing.
Lose-Lose: common strategy used is compromise.
Win-Win: strategies used are integration, collaboration, and
Characteristics of High Performing Teams:
o Common Purpose
o Crystal Clear Roles
o Accepted Leadership
o Effective Processes
o Solid Relationships
o Effective Communication
The 3-Cs and 3-Rs of Conflict Resolution areo
Training and Learning of Team
The HRM view of training: Training refers to the methods used to give new or
present employees the
skills they need to perform their jobs. Training today plays a key role in the
Positive Consequences Negative Consequences
Leads to new ideas Diverts energy from work
Stimulates creativity Threatens psychological well-being
Motivates change Wastes resources
Promotes organizational vitality Creates a negative climate
Helps individuals & groups establish identities Breaks down group cohesion
Serves as a safety valve to indicate problems Can increase hostility &
process, which is a key process for employers to ensure that employees are
organizational goals. Overall, training has a fairly impressive record of
effectiveness, scoring higher than appraisal and feedback, and just below goal
setting in its effect on
o Employees recruited for a flexible
working role rather than a ‘job’ and for their ability to learn
rather than for pre-existing skills
o Employees expected to re-train
o Training seen as an investment not a
o Learning is an ongoing process in the
organisation, which is integrated with working
o Performance, appraisal and
development are seen as part of a single process
Purpose of Training:
Effective training can raise performance, improve morale, and increase an
Poor, inappropriate, or inadequate training can be a source of frustration for
everyone involved. To
maximize the benefits of training, managers must closely monitor the training
process. Training ensures
that Team/Organization meets current and future performance objectives set by
Training also helps in continuous improvement of performance of individuals and
maximizing people’s potential for growth (and promotion).
o Ensure Team/Organization meets
current and future performance objectives by…
o Continuous improvement of
performance of individuals and teams, and…
o Maximizing people’s potential
for growth (and promotion)
Phases of Learning Cycles
Understand and frame problem
o Create a shared understanding
o What is the problem (or opportunity)?
o What are we trying to do?
o How are we going to do it?
o Starts out being general but becomes
more defined as you proceeds
Key Characteristics of Successful Learning Teams
o Clear (and shared) sense of
o Good communication
o Freely shared information
o Shared leadership
o Interdependence of team members
o Utilization of members’ strengths
o Mutual encouragement of risk taking
o Adaptive – able change/modify plans
when new information and/or circumstances emerge
o Pride in team identity
“A learning organization is one in which people at all levels, individually
and collectively, are
continually increasing their capacity to produce results they really care
about”. Learning organization is
Creating, acquiring, interpreting, transferring, and retaining knowledge.
Purposefully modifying its
behavior to reflect new knowledge and insights.
“Learning Organization” is a Hot Topic:
Levels of Learning
Managers/leaders need to encourage learning at four levels:
The Basis of the Learning Organization Strategy need to be
o Transfer Knowledge, not just
o Knowledge leads to better, safer
o Wiser decisions.
Organizations Must Learn Faster & Adapt to the Rapid Changes in the Environment
otherwise they will
The Bottom Line: Any organization that has a culture and structure
that promotes learning at all
levels to enhance its capabilities to produce, adapt and shape its future.
The Knowledge Management Cycle
o Create knowledge
o Capture knowledge
o Refine knowledge
o Store knowledge
o Manage knowledgee
o Disseminate knowledge
What Will a Learning Organization Achieve for You?
o Develop effective leadership
o Gain skills in working as a team
o Improve professional development
o Understand change management skills
o Overcome staff inertia
o Link theory and practice to solve
o Create a non-threatening environment
Through learning, we:
o Re-create ourselves
o Become able to do things we never
were able to do before
o Re-perceive the world and our
relationship to it
o Extend our capacity to create, to be
part of the generative process of life
Why is there a Need for a New Managerial Mindset?
o New technology
o Need for strategic flexibility
o Need for non-linear thinking
o Need to see the whole
o Need for changed mental models
Building, Maintaining & Sustaining the Learning Organization
Reward and Recognition Systems
o Team-based reward and recognition
systems can promote teamwork
o Focus should be rewarding teams for
achieving specific goals
Why People Leave Their Jobs?
o They feel they do not make a
o They do not get proper recognition.
o They are not learning anything new or
growing as a person.
o They do not like their coworkers.
o They want to earn more money.
People leave organization due to many reasons but one of them might be the
Reasons for tailoring compensation to individuals:
o Motivation comes from within the
individual as opposed to the group.
o The development of skills and
behaviors is an individual undertaking.
o Fairness in dealing with teams does
not mean equal pay for all.
o Team compensation is not a payoff but
a means of nurturing behavior that benefits the team.
Rewards and other Employee Behaviors
Starting from attracting the good team members/employees to retain every
thing is revolving on the
reward system of organization. Three important HR related behaviors like
turnover, absenteeism and
attendance is directly linked with the reward system of organizations.
With better reward system we can minimize the turnover, absenteeism and
attendance and vice versa.
Reward is also used to reinforce positive behavior and reduces the undesirable
Total compensation comprises of direct like wages, salary, commission, gain
sharing etc while indirect
benefits, vacation, insurance, etc. Even positive behavior of manager/leader
also play important role in
modifying the behaviors of the team member/employees. We can see a wide range of
organization use to attract, and retain the employees.
Objectives of Reward Systems
o Attraction and retention
(employees compare to other firms in the market)
o Motivating performance (contingent on
expectancy & equity)
o Getting employees to gain skills and
o Reinforce the organization’s culture
o Not cost the firm too much!!
o Always remember your basic
o Options for reward systems
o Objectives of reward systems
o How rewards impact organizational
o Implementing a reward system
o Appropriate rewards practices
sometimes vary between countries
Individual or Team Rewards?
o fosters independent behavior
o may lead to creative thinking and
o encourages competitive striving
within a work team
o emphasize cooperation & joint
o emphasize information sharing
Both have same purpose.
Types of Team Pay
o Incentive pay
o Profit sharing
o Gain sharing
A Virtual Team is known as a Geographically Dispersed Team (GDT) – is a group of
work across time, space, and organizational boundaries with links strengthened
by webs of
communication technology. They have complementary skills and are committed to a
have interdependent performance goals, and share an approach to work for which
they hold themselves
mutually accountable. Geographically dispersed teams allow organizations to hire
and retain the best
people regardless of location. A virtual team does not always mean Tele-workers.
defined as individuals who work from home. Many virtual teams in today’s
organizations consist of
employees both working at home and small groups in the office but in different
geographic locations or
during different shits/time.
Factors Driving Virtual Organizations
o Organizational structure changing
to meet the demands of the fast-paced, dynamic global economy
o Many organizations are moving from a
systems-based organizational model to a collaborative,
networked organizational model.
o The virtuality of virtual
organizations has been described as having two key features:
_ Creation of a common value
chain between distinct entities and distributed
_ Information technology (IT)
supported business processes (Seiber and Griese, 1997).
Communications in Virtual Organizations
Information technology is a primary mechanism for providing support and
control to virtual forms.
Communication within virtual organizational forms is increasingly supported by
o Permanent Virtual Organizations
o Virtual Teams
o Virtual Projects
o Temporary Virtual Organizations
Why a virtual team?
o Team members may not be
o It may not be practical to travel to
o Team members may work different
o Organization-wide project not in the
o Alliances with organizations.
Benefits of virtual teams
o People can work from anywhere at
o People can be recruited for their
competencies, not just physical location.
o Many physical handicaps are not a
o Expenses associated with travel,
lodging, parking, and leasing or owning a building may
be reduced and sometimes eliminated.
o Apply most appropriate resources
(from anywhere) to job
o Can schedule to
o Can build ongoing
relationships/networks across business
o Cost reduction
Downside of virtual teams
o Time zones
o “You can’t see me” attitude
o No constant direction
o Keeping that motivation and
o How do you celebrate a success?
Characterizations of virtual teams (Henery and Hartzler,1998)
o Members are mutually accountable
for team results.
o Members are dispersed geographically
(nationally or internationally).
o Members work apart more than in the
o The team solves problems and makes
A successful virtual team
o A unified commitment by all team
o Defined and agreed roles and
o Clear concise deliverables
o Strict meeting schedules
o Effective lines of communication
o Committed, enthusiastic leadership -
Setting Up Virtual Teams
o Establish communication norms –
procedures to reconcile differences in communication
o Develop templates for using
technology -- e.g., store documents on web pages, expert
o Set procedures, responsibilities
o Establish leadership that provides
o Hold an initial face-to-face startup
o Have periodic face-to-face meetings,
especially to resolve conflict and to maintain team
o Establish a clear code of conduct and
protocols for behavior
o Recognize and reward performance
o Use visuals in communications
o Recognize that most communications
will be non-verbal – use caution in tone and language
Success Factors in Virtual Teams
o High levels of trust among team
o Effective use of technology
o Clear implementation of team concept
o Effective individual performance
o Effective teamwork depends on
o In a virtual environment, trust is
more ability/task based than interpersonal relationship
o Level of member performance over time
results in building or denial of trust
Like in case of other team, trust is even more essential in the effectiveness of
Building Trust Virtually: Establish trust through performance consistency
o Rapid response to team members
(return emails, task completion)
o Set strong norms around communication
o Team leader role in reinforcing
Virtual Team Member Competencies:
o Strong communicator?
o Good collaborator?
o Document your work well?
Implementation of Virtual Teams:
o Must set out a clear business
reason for the team
o Team must understand its
o Team members must develop a sense of
o Must have accountability and rewards
for team members
Challenges to Virtual Team Success:
o Building trust within virtual
o Maximizing process gains & minimizing
process losses on virtual teams
o Overcoming feelings of isolation &
detachment associated with virtual teamwork
o Balancing technical & interpersonal
skills among virtual team members
o Assessment & recognition of virtual
Virtual Team Competencies
o The right technology
o Shared work space & processes
o Established ground rules
o Acceptance of cultural, style &
o Effective group dynamics
o Clear identity
o Teamwork skills
o True trust
Virtual leadership is about how to pull the people on a worldwide assignment
together into one
cohesive partnership. Leadership is about making things happen and getting
things done. It just takes
more work in a virtual environment.
Key in Leading a Virtual Team
o Build trust
o Reward and recognize
Virtual Team Leadership Competencies
o Make the invisible, visible
o Make the intangible, tangible
o Create & foster a climate of trust
o Establish & constantly model
standards of accountability
o Communicate clearly, constantly &
effectively within each receiver’s realm
o Delegate responsibilities
Virtual Leadership Key Traits
o Everyone gets core information at
the same time.
o Everyone has equal input.
o Everyone's ideas are weighed against
the alignment tool, not out of preference.
o Everyone's ideas are never judged or
rejected at the onset.
o Everyone has equal opportunity to
o Everyone is rewarded or publicly
recognized for contributions to the project.
o The leader socializes equally with
people near and far.
o Even appearances or suggestions of
favoritism break trust.
Team meetings keep members informed and provide a forum for problem solving,
and innovation. Meetings, when productive, are also one of the primary ways to
develop team member
relationships, enthusiasm, and spirit.
Effective Meetings at Work: Focused, Crisp and Short
Types of Meetings
o Leadership/Management: to
review the overall organization performance, setting up new
goals and targets, headed by CEO, or Chairman.
o Department Specific: to review
the departmental performance, headed by the head of
o Project Management: to review
the overall project performance, headed by Project Director
or Project Manager.
o Other Meetings
o Quarterly Business Review:
to review the quarterly progress report of all the
departments in the organization.
o Client Specific: to meet with
specific client/customer to discuss the business matters
o Functional Team: meeting with
in the department between different teams exist in one
o Special Project: meeting on
o Performance Review (1-1): to
review the performance
o Others: a number of
unscheduled meetings has also arranged on different level of organization.
o Ask yourself, "Is this meeting
o Have a goal for the meeting. What do
you want to accomplish?
o Have an agenda with clearly stated
items and the amount of time to be allotted each one. Send
out the agenda at least one day ahead of the meeting.
o Limit attendance and appoint a
o Stay focused on the agenda. If a new
topic is introduced, add it to the list of future agenda items
or negotiate with the group if it should be discussed now. Have a clock in the
o Strive to get everyone involved in
the discussion, avoid domination by one or two members.
o Foster rigorous debate and
brainstorming, while respecting each other's opinions.
o Use visual aids. Have a flip chart
and use it.
o Keep minutes of the key points raised
and actions to be taken, then follow up.
o Do a two-minute evaluation of the
meeting. Ask everyone what went well… what could be
The Meeting Process
o Follow Up
Having the leading position or higher score in a contest; "he is ahead by a
pawn"; "the leading team in
the pennant race".
Attributes of High Performing Teams:
o Performance outcomes
o Specific, shared purpose and vision
o Mutual, internal accountability
o Coordinated, shared work roles
o Inefficiency leading to efficiency
o Extraordinarily high quality
o Creative continuous improvement
o High credibility and trust
o Clarity of core competence
o Participative leadership
o Shared responsibility
o Aligned on purpose
o High communication
o Future focused
o Focused on task
o Creative talents
o Rapid response
Principles of Leadership Effectiveness
o Do not avoid risks.
o Believe in yourself.
o Take the offense rather than the
o Know the ways of disagreement and the
means of compromise.
o Be a good follower. Effective leaders
lead as they would like to be lead.
Material presented during this course is taken from different books,
presentations and work done by
great peoples in this field to make the material understandable for a common
person and purely for
learning purpose. Material/work used from different sources is highly