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Leadership and Team Management

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Training and Learning of Team
The HRM view of training:
Training refers to the methods used to give new or present employees the
skills they need to perform their jobs. Training today plays a key role in the performance management
process, which is a key process for employers to ensure that employees are working toward
organizational goals. Overall, training has a fairly impressive record of influencing organizational
effectiveness, scoring higher than appraisal and feedback, and just below goal setting in its effect on
productivity. o Employees recruited for a flexible working role rather than a ‘job’ and for their ability to learn
rather than for pre-existing skills
o Employees expected to re-train periodically
o Training seen as an investment not a cost
o Learning is an ongoing process in the organisation, which is integrated with working
o Performance, appraisal and development are seen as part of a single process

Purpose of Training:
Effective training can raise performance, improve morale, and increase an organization's potential.
Poor, inappropriate, or inadequate training can be a source of frustration for everyone involved. To
maximize the benefits of training, managers must closely monitor the training process. Training ensures
that Team/Organization meets current and future performance objectives set by top management.
Training also helps in continuous improvement of performance of individuals and teams, and
maximizing people’s potential for growth (and promotion).
o Ensure Team/Organization meets current and future performance objectives by…
o Continuous improvement of performance of individuals and teams, and…
o Maximizing people’s potential for growth (and promotion)

Training and Development Trends:
Although training is often used with development, the terms are not synonymous. Training typically
focuses on providing employees with specific skills or helping them to correct deficiencies in their
performance. In contrast, development is an effort to provide employees with the abilities that the
organization will need in the future. Preparing them for future.
o Skill requirements will continue to increase
o Workforce will become significantly better educated & more diverse
o Corporate restructuring reshapes businesses
o Technology will revolutionize certain training delivery methods
o The role of training departments will change o More flexible courses aimed specifically at performance improvement
o More organizations will strive to become learning-organizations
o Emphasis on human performance management will accelerate

Investing in people:
“We must transform the perception of training expenditure so that it is no longer seen simply as a cost,
but is regarded as an investment, to be evaluated alongside investments in capital equipment.”
“Sir Dennis Rooke, Chairman British Gas, 1987.
Training Methods:
There are different training methods, which are given below;
o On-the-Job Training (OJT) – means having a person learn a job by actually doing
it, and involves the following:
o Preparing the learner; presenting the operation; doing a tryout; and followup.
o Apprenticeship Training – is a structured process by which people become skilled
workers through a combination of classroom instruction and on-the-job training.
o Informal Learning – involves learning through day-to-day unplanned interactions
between the new worker and his/her colleagues.
o Job Instruction Training – refers to teaching a new employee the logical sequence
of steps in a job step-by-step.
o Lectures – quick and simple way to provide knowledge to large groups.
o Programmed Learning – is a step-by-step self-learning method: 1) presenting
questions, facts, or problems to the learner; 2) allowing the person to respond; and
3) providing feedback on the accuracy of the answers.
o Literacy Training Techniques – Companies are responding the functional illiteracy
by testing job candidates’ basic skills, and setting up basic skills and literacy
programs. o Audiovisual Based Training – Tools include: films, PowerPoint presentations,
video conferencing, audiotapes, and videotapes.
o Simulated Training – is a method in which trainees learn on the actual or simulated equipment they
will use on the job, but are actually trained off-the job.
o Computer-Based Training – is where the trainee uses computer-based and/or DVD
systems to increase his/her knowledge or skills. CBT programs have real
advantages including reducing learning time, cost effectiveness once designed
and produced, instructional consistency, mastery of learning, increased retention, and
increased trainee motivation.
o Electronic Performance Support Systems (EPSS) – are sets of computerized tools and
displays that effectively automate and integrate training, documentation, and phone
support, thus enabling individuals to provide support that’s faster, cheaper, and more
effective than the traditional methods.
o Distance and Internet-Based Training – Distance learning methods include traditional
paper-and-pencil correspondence courses, as well as Tele-training, videoconferencing,
and Internet-based classes.
o Tele-training – where a trainer in a central location teaches groups of
employees at remote locations via television hookups.
o Videoconferencing – allows people in one location to communicate live
via a combination of audio and visual equipment with people in different
locations–another city or country or with groups in several cities.
o Training via the Internet – Internet based learning programs are
increasingly popular. Some companies simply let their employees take
online courses offered by online course providers while others use their
intranets to facilitate computer-based training.

Learning Principles
o Participation
o Repetition
o Relevance
o Transference
o Feedback

Maximizing Learning:
Selecting the Stage for Learning
o Provide clear task instructions
o Model appropriate behavior

Increasing Learning during Training
o Provide for active participation
o Match training techniques to trainees self-efficacy
o Ensure specific, timely, diagnostic, and practical feedback
o Provide opportunities for trainees to practice new behavior

Maintaining Performance after Training
o Develop learning points to assist knowledge retention
o Set specific goals
o Identify appropriate re-enforcers
o Teach trainees self-management skills.

Following up on Training
o Evaluate effectiveness
o Make revisions as needed.

Models of learning:
o Associative learning: stimulus/response
o Cognitive learning: problem solving
o Social learning: watching others
o Experiential learning: learning by doing

Phases of Learning Cycles
Understand and frame problem
o Create a shared understanding
o What is the problem (or opportunity)?
o What are we trying to do?
o How are we going to do it?
o Starts out being general but becomes more defined as you proceeds

Teams plan actions to produce learning by answering
o What don’t we know that we need to know?
o What actions can we take between now & our next meeting to find out what we need to
o How can we verify that what we are assuming is actually true?

Team Learning Record
What we Know?
What we Think We
Know? (Assumption)
What we Don’t Know?
(Question to be answered)
Key to learning is action!
o Test assumptions
o Experiment
o Gather new information
o Try out hunches
Only by acting do teams have the opportunity to learn

Action Plan for Team Learning
What Needs To Be Done? BY Whom? By When?
Reflect and Learn
o Really when team learning occurs
o Teams need to slow down, reflect on what has happened and capture lessons learned
o Must occur
In a spirit of openness
Not in a climate of self-protection or criticism

Assessing Team Learning
o Speed
o Number of learning cycles should be completed.
o The more cycles completed, the more learning that takes place.
o Depth
o Degree to which teams “reframe” their understanding of the original problem.
o Breadth (Impact)
o The impact of the results produced by the team.
o Degree to which other projects, functional areas, or the organization as a whole is

To Motivate Followers Leaders Must:
o Set clear standards and goals so that the employee will take more interest.
o Expect the best from employee.
o Pay attention towards employees.
o Personalize rewards and recognition. It will enhance organization performance.
o Tell a story about winning organization etc.
o Celebrate ceremonies together.
o Be a role model for employee.

Factors Affecting Teamwork
o Common purpose
o Mutual respect
o Good communication
o Good leadership
o Understanding own role
o Understanding role of other
team members
o Ability to shape role
boundaries when needed
o Shared responsibility
o Common “language”
o Professional culture

Learning Team Assumptions
o Every member’s participation is essential to the team’s success
o Members’ roles are fluid
o Authority is shared
o Information is freely shared with the team
o Every team member has something to learn and something to teach.
o Members don’t know precisely what they will learn or what they will teach
o Team goals include performance and learning expectations

Key Characteristics of Successful Learning Teams
o Clear (and shared) sense of purpose
o Good communication
o Freely shared information
o Shared leadership
o Interdependence of team members
o Utilization of members’ strengths
o Mutual encouragement of risk taking
o Adaptive – able change/modify plans when new information and/or circumstances emerge
o Pride in team identity

Team Learning
o Continuous improvement process
o How team resolves conflict
o How the team handles diversity
o Harness team creativity

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