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Leadership and Team Management

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Lecture 24 is mainly to review what ever we covered so far during our 23 lectures. The idea was to give
you opportunities to review and refresh the topics we covered so far.
Title of our course/subject MGT 623 is “Leadership and Team Management”
We can divide this topic into two components, the Leadership and team dynamics to understand each
component separately and ultimately understanding the subject Leadership & team management and
applying these concepts at workplace. Today's effective leaders must have the capability and confidence to build and develop focused and
motivated teams that deliver outstanding operational performance in line with the strategic goals of the
organization. This course highlights the processes and techniques leaders have at their disposal to
develop their effectiveness and maintain top team performance.
The course derives its roots from the basics of organizational management. In order to build a strong
footing for learning of the concepts of leadership and team management, we need to understand the
concepts of organization.
I tried to give basic information about organization. An Organization is a deliberate arrangement of
people to accomplish some specific purpose or goals.
As we are discussing the leadership and team management the main focus reference to an organization
are the people. Focusing on People: the Key to Success.
Organizational Performance:
The organizational performance is judge by their profit, effectiveness and efficiency.
_ An overall measure of the quantity and quality of work performance with
resource utilization taken into account.
Performance effectiveness
_ An output measure of task or goal accomplishment.
Performance efficiency
_ An input measure of the resource costs associated with goal accomplishment.

That is the Role of Management?
Management is more concern about building working relationship with others, help the team members
to develop the skills for better performance, providing help to develop team work among them and
providing them with a conducive/quality environment for performance and satisfaction. In this
connection, management should know that each individual is a value-added worker and if they are
satisfied and motivated, organization can achieve their goals efficiently and effectively.

What is Leadership?
Concept of Leadership is very important in organizations because leaders are the ones who make things
happen. Without leaders, an organization would find it difficult to get things done. Leaders mostly help
others to learn – just as a coach would help players play instead of playing himself. This lecture
introduces students to the concept of leadership and leadership effectiveness by providing working
definitions and by emphasizing the cultural limitations of the concepts. It presents several cultural
models that are used throughout the text to explain cross-cultural difference in leadership. There is no
universally agreeable definition of leadership. Just go and type “leadership” on Google and you can
find more than 186,000,000 different pages of reference on web. It involves influencing attitudes,
behaviors, beliefs and feelings of people and believes to be an important topic.
Peter Drucker the guru of Management defines Leadership as “The only definition of a leader is
someone who has followers." While John C Maxwell defines "leadership is influence - nothing more,
nothing less." According to John W. Gardner Leadership is “the process of persuasion and example by
which an individual (or leadership team) induces a group to take action that is in accord with the
leader’s purpose, or the shared purposes of all.”

Leaders are those persons who are able to influence others and who possess managerial authority.

Leadership, then, is the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals. Trust is the
foundation of leadership. Leaders develop an environment of trust where the organizational members
tend to establish a follower-ship with the leader.

Successful leaders…..
• Communicate
• Motivate
• Build Teams
• Solve Problems
• Resolve Conflicts
• Manage Change
• Promote Creativity
• Communicate
• Motivate
• Build Teams
• Solve Problems
• Resolve Conflicts
• Manage Change
• Promote Creativity
Successful leaders-Challenge the process, Inspire a shared vision, Enable others to act, Model the way,
Encourage the followers, Change agent, Take followers to the destination

Do we need leaders?
Consider how life would be different without leadership
• Families
• Education
• Businesses
• Service associations
• Teams
• Countries
• World

Why Study Leadership?
• Understanding leadership helps organizations:
– select the right people for leadership positions
– train people in leadership positions to improve
• Who benefits?
– leaders
– followers
– organizations

Leaders are Effective When
o The group achieves its goals
o Internal processes are smooth
o The group can adapt to external forces

Why Leaders Fail?
• Insensitive, abrasive, bullying style
• Cold, aloof, arrogant
• Betrayal of personal trust
• Overly ambitious
• Specific performance problems
• Micro-managing—does not build a team
• Unable to select good subordinates
Leaders Vs Managers
– Innovate
– Develop
– Inspire
– Take the long-term
– Ask what and why
– Originate
– Challenge the status
– Do the right things
_ Administer
_ Maintain
_ Control
_ Have a short-term view
_ Ask how and when
_ Imitate
_ Accept the status quo
_Do things right

What “Followers” Expect
• Traits desired in a leader:
– Integrity
– Consistency
– Listen and discern needs
– Open-minded
– Honest w/themselves; Inspire trust
– Calm
• Stays focused while handling a volatile situation
– One who brings out the best in me

Trust: The Foundation of Leadership
The foundations of trust are Integrity, Competence, Consistency, Loyalty and Openness.

Importance of Followers
• Followers’ actions/attitudes influence their leader
– For better or worse
• Qualities of effective followers are same ones we want in leaders
• Performance of leaders & followers are variables that depend upon one another
Follower Traits That Influence the Leadership Process are like Values Norms, Cohesiveness,
Expectations, Personality, Maturity, Competency levels, Motivation, Number of followers, Trust and
confidence etc.

What Followers Want
Leaders to be Honest, Forward -Thinking, Inspiring and Competent
Colleagues to be Honest, Cooperative, Dependable and Competent

Trait Approach: “Leaders are born, not made.” Leaders possess certain traits that make them leaders.

Common Traits like Intelligence, Dominance, Self-confidence, High energy level, Task relevant
knowledge etc.

Behavior Approach: There are behavioral determinants of leadership which can be learned. People
can be trained to be effective leaders.

Contingency Approach/Theory: Effective leaders don’t use a single style; they use many different
styles and make adjustments based on the situation. An important but often overlooked contingency
variables is national culture

Leadership approaches/New theory:
Transformational Leadership: Focus on influencing attitudes and assumptions of staff.
Building commitment to the mission and objective of the organisation
Transactional Leadership: Focus on rewards in exchange for motivation, productivity
and effective task accomplishment
Charismatic Leadership: Traits of a Charismatic Leader are Self-confidence, with A
vision, Strong conviction in that vision, Out of the ordinary behavior, The image of a
change agent
Now we will shift our focus to leader as an individual and try to understand the personality and person
part of that individual known as “a leader”. To understand this let’s try to start from basic personality
Personality is the pattern of relatively enduring ways in which a person feels, thinks, and behaves.
Personality is determined by nature (biological heritage) and nurture (situational factors).
Organizational outcomes that have been shown to be predicted by personality include job satisfaction,
work stress, and leadership effectiveness. Personality is not a useful predictor of organizational
outcomes when there are strong situational constraints. Because personality tends to be stable over
time, managers should not expect to change personality in the short run. Leaders should accept
employees’ personalities as they are and develop effective ways to deal with people. To understand
leader we need to understand him/her as individual. For this understanding personality indicator is very

Some Major Forces Influencing Personality:
Personality Determinants
: An early argument centered on whether or not personality was the result of
heredity or of environment. Personality appears to be a result of both influences. Today, we recognize a
third factor—the situation.
Personality is the function of “The Person” and “The Environment. In other words it is a Person-
Situation Interaction.

Types of work-related behaviour:
Values Represent Basic Convictions
A specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to
an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence.
They have both content and intensity attributes.
An individual’s set of values ranked in terms of intensity is considered the person’s value
Values have the tendency to be stable.
Many of our values were established in our early years from parents, teachers, friends, and

Importance of Values
_ Values lay the foundation for the understanding of attitudes and motivation.
_ Values generally influence attitudes and behaviors. We can predict reaction based on
understanding values.

Attitudes: Attitudes are evaluative statements that are either favorable or unfavorable concerning
objects, people, or events. Attitudes are not the same as values, but the two are interrelated.

Main Components of Attitudes: There are three components of an attitude
Cognitive component
_ The employee thought he deserved the promotion (cognitive)
Affective component
_ The employee strongly dislikes his supervisor (affective)
Behavioral component
_ The employee is looking for another job (behavioral). In organizations, attitudes are
important because of the behavioral component
Continuing from previous discussion, to understand individual knowing the basis of behavior of
individuals is very important.
Why is it important to know an individual’s values? Although Values strongly influence a person’s
perception, attitudes and ultimately the behavior. Knowledge of an individual’s value system can
provide insight into his/her attitudes.
Leaders should be interested in their employees’ attitudes because attitudes give warnings of potential
problems and because they influence behavior. Satisfied and committed employees, for instance, have
lower rates of turnover and absenteeism.

Individual Behavior-Perception: Perception is the process by which individuals select, organize, and
interpret the input from their senses (vision, hearing, touch, smell, and taste) to give meaning and order
to the world around them. Interpretation of a situation is known as perception. Through perception,
people try to make sense of their environment and the objects, events, and other people in it. Play major
role on the behaviors of the people.
Perception has three components:
o The perceiver is the person trying to interpret some observation that he or she has just
made, or the input from his or her senses.
o The target of perception is whatever the perceiver is trying to make sense of. In
organizational behavior, we are often concerned with person perception, or another person
as the target of perception.
o The situation is the context in which perception takes place.
Characteristics of all three components influence what is actually perceived

Type A and Type B Personalities: Individuals who are Type A have an intense desire to achieve, are
extremely competitive, have a sense of urgency, are impatient, and can be hostile. Because these individuals
are so driven, they can be difficult to get along with. These individuals, though they have the drive to
accomplish, do not do well in situations that require a lot of interaction with others. These individuals are
more likely to have more conflicts.. Type B individuals are more relaxed and easygoing. Type B
characterized as easy-going, relaxed, and able to listen carefully and communicate more precisely than
Type-A individual.

Positive Affect - an individual’s tendency to highlight the positive aspects of oneself, other people, and
the world in general

Negative Affect - an individual’s tendency to highlight the negative aspects of oneself, other people,
and the world in general

The Big Five Model of Personality: An impressive body of research supports that five basic
dimensions underlie all other personality dimensions. The five basic dimensions are:

Extraversion. Comfort level with relationships. Extroverts tend to be gregarious, assertive, and
sociable. Interesting in getting ahead, Leading through influencing, Individuals are outgoing; Likes to
meet new people and willing to confront others. Introverts tend to be reserved, timid, and quiet.

Agreeableness: Individual’s propensity to defer to others. High agreeableness people—cooperative,
warm, and trusting. Traits related to getting along with others. Characteristics include warm, easygoing,
compassionate, friendly, and sociable. Individuals typically are sociable and have lots of friends. Low
agreeableness people—cold, disagreeable, and antagonistic.

Conscientiousness: A measure of reliability. A high conscientious person is responsible, organized,
dependable, and persistent. Includes traits related to achievement. Traits include high credibility,
conformity, and organization. Individuals typically work hard and put in extra time and effort to meet
goals. Those who score low on this dimension are easily distracted, disorganized, and unreliable.

Emotional stability: A person’s ability to withstand stress. People with positive emotional stability
tend to be calm, self-confident, and secure. The fine line between stable and unstable. Stable is being
calm, good under pressure, relaxed, and secure. Unstable is nervous, poor under pressure, insecure.
Those with high negative scores tend to be nervous, anxious, depressed, and insecure.

Openness to experience: The range of interests and fascination with novelty. Extremely open people
are creative, curious, and artistically sensitive. Trait related to being willing to change and try new
things. Individuals typically are willing to take calculated risks. Those at the other end of the openness
category are conventional and find comfort in the familiar.

What the MBTI? MBTI is an inventory of preferences for behavior and not a diagnostic psychological
test for identifying dysfunction or abilities. It tells you about your preferences for orienting yourself in
the world, and for gathering information and making decisions.

Katharine Briggs & Isabel Myers, mother-daughter team developed Jung’s types into the Myers
Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). There are four categories, each with two sub-categories are as follows;

The 4 dimensions: Personality type dependent on 4 dimensions: It is a 100-question personality test
that asks people how they usually feel or act in particular situations. Individuals are classified as:
1. Extroverted or introverted (E or I).
2. Sensing or intuitive (S or N).
3. Thinking or feeling (T or F).
4. Perceiving or judging (P or J).
These classifications are then combined into sixteen personality types. For example:
_ INTJs are visionaries. They usually have original minds and great drive for their own ideas
and purposes. They are characterized as skeptical, critical, independent, determined, and
often stubborn.
_ ESTJs are organizers. They are realistic, logical, analytical, decisive, and have a natural
head for business or mechanics.
_ The ENTP type is a conceptualizer. He or she is innovative, individualistic, versatile, and
attracted to entrepreneurial ideas. This person tends to be resourceful in solving challenging
problems but may neglect routine assignments.
But also keep in your mind that each pair is of preferences for behavior. They are not measures of

The MBTI Sub-Categories:
_ Extraversion -------------------- Introversion

_ Sensing ---------------------------- iNtuition

_ Thinking ---------------------------- Feeling

_ Judging --------------------------- Perceiving

There are no “good” or “bad” type’s only different types. Each preference type has a contribution to
make to effective teamwork. Each needs the opportunity to make a contribution based upon strengths.
We understand that leadership is a process and not a position. Three components playing important role
in this process are leader, followers and situation. In this lecture, we tried to explain this important
component/part of leadership process.
Situation is the environment or circumstances in which an individual performs. Following are the
factors that can influence the situation;

Situational factors influence the leadership process:
_ Size of the organization
_ Organizational life cycle stage
_ Social and psychological climate
_ Patterns of employment
_ Type, place, and purpose of work performed
_ Culture of the organization
_ Over all environment
_ Leader-follower interaction
_ Leader-follower compatibility
_ Compatibilities within the followers
The organizational environment is the set of forces surrounding an organization that have the potential
to affect the way it operates and its access to scarce resources. Basically organization environment has
two dimensions internal and external. This can also be known as Macro and Micro factors or even
General Environment and Task Environment. All these factors/forces do affect the leadership process.

Becoming a Leader:
The leaders of a group, team or organization are the individuals who influence others behavior. Leader
effectiveness is the extent to which a leader actually does help a group, team or organization to achieve
its goals. Leaders are either appointed by someone external to the group and they are elected by group
members themselves. Some people take up role of leader by using their influences. With the passage of
time, you can see that leadership will emerge over time. The group members will assess with in the
group that who is leader worthy. In this situation, communication style will play a dynamic role. A
group member can become a leader if he or she has following qualities/skills;
_ Think like a leader
_ Develop your judgment
_ Build leadership traits
_ Build your power base
_ Share your vision
_ Adapt your style
_ Pick the right followers
_ Organize tasks properly
Three competency of a Leader:
there are three competency of leader;

Leading the Organization:
Leading the organization and put the organization on right path through setting vision, direction and
strategy. They also involve in problem solving and decision making. They keenly observe the
prevailing politics in the organization and influence other team members. Leaders always try to create a
change culture in the organization. For this purpose they take the risks and innovates the new things in
the organization by enhancing business skills and knowledge.

Leading others:
One of the leader’s competencies is leading and managing others. In the organization, a leader manages
the effective teams and groups for achievement of organizational objectives by building and
maintaining a working relationship between them. They motivate other and build the trust on team
members. One of the major tasks of leader is to develop other, which is more important factor. They set
a reward system in the organization and mostly link it with the performance or achievement of goals.

Leading oneself:
This is also very important to leading one self. It is the responsibility of the leader to adopt the changes
prevails in the environment. They also increase the self awareness for himself that what is going on in
the surroundings of the organization. They always try to lean as more as they can. They also develop
the culture of ethics and integrity with in the organization.
Developing adaptability, increasing self-awareness, managing yourself, increasing capacity to learn,
exhibiting leadership stature, displaying drive and purpose, developing ethics and integrity.
Leaders always know about their strengths, weakness, opportunities, challenges and know who they are
as an individual. They also know that “Positions do not possess leadership characteristics, only people
possess leadership characteristics.”
“Leadership is not a matter of luck. The harder you work, the luckier you are.”
1. Power: is the desire to influence, give orders, and carry them out.
2. Achievement: is the need to create/ achieve and build something of value
3. Affiliation: is an interest in knowing and helping others.

Power-Oriented Leader: they strive for leadership because of the formal authority it brings. They are
the bold and have a dominance role in the organization.

Achievement-Oriented Leader: they want to discover, create, and build some thing. They are the
creative and innovators and always try to achieve some thing new. They are competent, skillful and

Affiliation Leader: they have high concern for human welfare and care about others and has a desire to
serve. They are helpful, unselfish and considerate of the well being of others.

Points to Remember:
_ An individual will prefer one or two social motives over the others. Preference depends on cultural
values, personal traits, and experiences.
_ Leadership is exerted to satisfy one or a combination of the three motives. Motivated by power,
achievement, or affiliation
_ Leaders and followers are happiest in situations that allow expression of personal social motives.
We will shift now to another important topic “Power”. Does having power make a leader? To answer
this question we need to understand basic concepts of power and its relationship with the process of
_ Power: is the possession of control, authority, or influence over others. (Webster’s). Leadership
power comes from the followers’ willingness to be influenced, induced, control and guide.

Sources of Leadership Power:
_ The following are the sources of a leader’s power;
1. A leader’s authority most commonly stems from the position to which he or she is appointed
and the power to reward or punish individuals.
2. An authority in his or her field has expert power, and others do what is asked of them out of
respect. Referent power is based on personal magnetism and charisma.
3. Formal leaders get some of their authority through their position.
4. Informal leaders get their authority through charisma.

Understanding Power: before understanding power we need to ask some questions by our self;
1. What is power?
2. How do leaders acquire the power needed for leadership?
3. What are organizational politics?
4. How do organizational politics affect the Leadership?

is the ability of one person or group to cause another person or group to do something they
otherwise might not have done is the principal means of directing and controlling organizational goals
and activities.

Influence: is the process of affecting the thoughts, behavior, & feelings of another person.

Authority: is the right to influence another person formally given by the organization. A legitimate
power is known as authority.

Principles of Power:
• Power is perceived
• Power is relative
• Power bases must be coordinated
• Power is a double-edged sword (used and abused)
Historian Lord Acton once said, “Power corrupts, and absolute power corrupts absolutely.”

Dependency: The Key To Power: If you want to get things done in a group or organization, it helps to
have power. As a leader if you want to maximize your power, you will need to increase others’
dependence on you. You can, for instance, increase your power in relation to your boss by developing
knowledge or a skill that he/she needs and for which he/she perceives no one ready to substitute. You
will not be alone in attempting to build your power bases. Others, particularly employees and peers,
will be seeking to make you dependent on them. The result is a continual battle. While you seek to
maximize others’ dependence on you, you will be seeking to minimize your dependence on others, and,
of course, others will be trying to do the same.

Forms of Power:
Personal power
– use of personal influence of events.
– not arrogance.
Professional power
– use of professional expertise and competence, embedded within an organization, to
make change or make a contribution.
Positional power
– granted by the organization.
Responses of the use of power can be divided into three different behaviors. If positional power is used
appropriately the response of followers will be compliance. While excessive power use can create
resistance behavior. In case some one is using personal power the response is always commitment of
followers. Same can be understood from the following figure.
The more you will move toward excessive or coercive power the more you can experience resistance.

How do you get power?
• Key words
– Management
– People
– Motivation
– Organization
– Team
– Culture
– Influence
– Politics

Organizational Factors Which Contribute to Political Behavior
_ Low trust
_ Democratic decision making
_ High performance pressures
_ Scarcity of resources
_ Role ambiguity
_ Self-serving senior managers
_ Unclear evaluation systems
_ Zero-sum allocations

Managing Organizational Politics
_ Reduce System Uncertainty
_ Reduce Competition
_ Break Existing Political Fiefdoms

Managing Political Behavior:
_ Maintain open communication
_ Clarify performance expectations
_ Use participative management
_ Encourage cooperation among work groups
_ Manage scarce resources well
_ Provide a supportive organizational climate

What is Empowerment?
Empowerments is the process of enabling or authorizing an individual to think, behave, take action, and
control work and decision making in autonomous ways. It is the state of feeling self-empowered to take
control of one's own destiny. OR
Empowerment is a social action process that promotes participation of people, organizations, and
communities towards the goals of increase individual and community control, political efficacy,
improved quality of community life and social justice.” (Wallerstein, 1992)
Why Important? Powerlessness
• Living in poverty
• Relatively low in hierarchy
• Chronic Stress
• Lack of Social Support
• Income Inequities
• Racial Discrimination
Lack of Control Over
What is Empowerment, and How Can Empower Others?
_ The power keys to empowerment: there are two views about power keys to empowerment;
1. Traditional view: in traditional view power is relational in terms of individuals.
2. Empowerment view: In empowerment view, the emphasis is on the ability to make
things happen. Power is relational in terms of problems and opportunities, not

Empowering Organizations:
“At the organizational level, OE [organizational empowerment] refers to organizational efforts that
generate PE [personal empowerment] among members and organizational effectiveness needed for goal
_ Provide opportunities for staff to be involved in organizational decision-making, program
development, and evaluation.
_ Reduce organization hierarchies and supervisory structure so that workers have more control over
their work.
_ Encourage professional development and team-building among staff.
_ Provide resources that facilitate the development of political power among people.
_ Regard workers as partners rather than subordinates.

What Is the Bottom line?
_ Appropriate employee empowerment is essential to organizational success.
_ Everyone claims to empower employees, but this is easier said than done.
_ A failed organizational empowerment initiative is at best a waste of time.

Power sharing and Empowerment:
Power sharing:
The delegation of power or authority to subordinates in the organization. What’s
wrong with this concept? Most of the times, after sharing of power or authority, people think that,
employee misuse it and their influence on employee will reduce consequently.

Empowerment: being enabled to make independent decisions and take effective action.

Guidelines for effective employee empowerment:
Select the right managers.
Choose the right employees.
Provide training.
Offer guidance.
Hold everyone accountable.
Build trust.
Share authority instead of giving it up.
Encourage dissent.
Give it time.
Accept increased turnover.
Share information.
Realize that empowerment has its
Focus on relationships.
Stress organizational values.
Transform mistakes into opportunities.
Reward and recognize.
Involve employees in decision-making.

Leadership and Empowerment: Empowerment involves sharing or giving power or influence to
another. It is the process through which leaders enable and help others to gain power and achieve
influence within the organization. When employees feel powerful they are more willing to make
decisions and take action.

How Leaders Can Empower Others:
A leader can involve others in selecting their work assignments and tasks
He creates an environment of cooperation, information sharing, discussions, and shared ownership
of goals.
He encourages others to take initiative, make decisions, and use their knowledge.
He finds out what others think and let them help design solutions.
Leader can give others the freedom to put their ideas and solutions into practice.
He recognizes successes and encourages high performance.

Participative leadership: some characteristics of a participative leader;
Begins with involving people
Involvement leads to understanding, which leads to commitment
Taps the constructive power of people
Creates a humanistic and productive workplace
Means understanding the views and interests of all affected

Motivation: There are over 140 definitions of the term motivation that have been used in various
capacities. Motivation is important because it explains why employees behave as they do. Work
can be defined as the psychological forces within a person that determine the direction of a
person’s behavior in an organization, a person’s level of effort, and a person’s level of persistence in the
face of obstacles.
_ Definition: Motivation is the result of the interaction of the individual and the situation.
Motivation is the processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and

persistence of effort toward attaining a goal.
_ The process that initiates, directs, and sustains behavior to satisfy physiological or
psychological needs or wants; the energizing and directing of behavior, the force behind our
yearning for food, our longing for sexual intimacy, and our desire to achieve.

Sources of Motivation: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation;

Intrinsically Motivation: is behavior that is performed for its own sake; the source of motivation is
actually performing the behavior.
a. Employees who are intrinsically motivated often remark that their work gives them a sense of
accomplishment and achievement or that they feel they are doing something worthwhile.
b. Motives are intrinsic when an independent third party cannot easily verify them.

Extrinsic Motivation: is behavior that is performed to acquire material or social rewards or to avoid
a. The behavior is not performed for its own sake but rather for its consequences.
b. This form of motivation may be linked to operant conditioning.
c. Motives are extrinsic when they can easily be verified by an independent third party.
Work motivation explains why employees behave as they do. Four prominent theories about work
motivation need theory, expectancy theory, equity theory, and organizational justice theory
provide complementary approaches to understanding and managing motivation in organizations.
Similarly Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs also help us to understand the employees work
behavior. Each theory answers different questions about the motivational process.

Work motivation can be defined as the psychological forces within a person that determine the
direction of a person’s behavior in an organization, a person’s level of effort, and a person’s level of
persistence in the face of obstacles.

Three Approaches to Motivation:
Individual Differences Approach:
Treats motivation as a characteristic of the individual.

Job & Organization Approach: Emphasizes the design of jobs and the general organizational

Managerial Approach: Focuses on behaviors of managers, in particular, their use of goals and rewards
What Factors Diminish
Motivation in the Workplace?
• Meaningless tasks
• Red tape
• Lack of clear goals
• Failure to set priorities
• Distractions
• Over-commitment
• Information overload
• No positive feedback
• Lack of autonomy
• Unpredictable change in
• Lack of recognition
• Absence of humor
• Micromanagement
• Failure to delegate
• Bureaucratic hurdles
• Interpersonal conflict
• Lack of accountability
What are Some of the Results of
Poor Motivation in the Workplace?
• Laziness
• Failure
• Poor quality
• Resistance
• Avoidance
• Tardiness
• Burnout
• Demoralization
• Frustration
• Conflict
• Lack of meaning
• Absence of pride
• Resentment
• Turnover
• Detachment
• Discouragement
• Negative
organizational culture
What are Some of the Most Powerful
Motivators in our Lives?
• Commitment
• Money
• Meaning
• Recognition
• Love
• Participation
• Emotion
• Appreciation
• Collegiality
• Competition
• Hate
• Religious beliefs
• Sense of
• Cultural norms
• Chance to make a
• Independence
• Opportunity to serve
• Duty
• Habit
• High energy level
• Perceived need for

How Can You Motivate Yourself?
_ Stick with your passions.
_ Share your enthusiasm.
_ Hang out with high achievers.
_ Flavor tedium with pleasure.
_ Go with your strengths.
_ Make lists.
_ Stay focused on results.
_ Just do something.

How Can You Motivate Others?
_ Associate with highly motivated people.
_ Set a measurable goal.
_ Make a compelling case.
_ Use emotional temptation.
_ Set a fire and keep it going.
_ Make it fun.
_ Explain how.
_ Keep doing something new and different.
_ Celebrate

Employee Motivation:
_ Good leadership is key
_ Create a culture of trust
_ Encourage risk taking
_ Foster ownership
_ Goal-directed efforts

Applying Motivational Concepts:
_ Recognize individual differences
_ Match people to jobs
_ Set challenging goals
_ Encourage participation
_ Individualize rewards
_ Link rewards to performance
_ Check for equity
_ Don’t ignore money

Conditions of Leadership Motivation:
o Leadership generates motivation when:
o It increases the number and kinds of payoffs
o Path to the goal is clear and easily traveled with coaching and direction
o Obstacles and roadblocks are removed
o The work itself is personally satisfying

Money as a Motivator:
_ According to Maslow and Alderfer, pay should prove especially motivational to people who
have strong lower-level needs.
_ If pay has this capacity to fulfill a variety of needs, then it should have good potential as a

The Role of Money:
_ They value their services and place high value on them
_ They perceive money as symbol of their achievement
_ They do not remain in low paying organization
_ They are very self – confident
_ Know their abilities and limitations
Communication is one of the most important processes that take place in any organizations. Effective
communication allows individuals, groups, teams and organizations to achieve their goals and perform
at a high level, and it affects virtually every aspect of organizational behavior.
One of the defining features of communication is the sharing of information with other people.
Another defining feature is reaching a common understanding.
In this case, communication is the sharing of information between two or more individuals or groups
to reach a common understanding.
Reaching a common understanding does not mean that people have to agree with each other.
Communication is good or effective when members of organization share information with each other
and all parties involved are relatively clear about what information means.

Why is this important???
Effective communication is important in organizations because it affects practically every aspect of
organizational behavior. Good communication prevents many problems from occurring and serves as
motivation in an organization. Why it is important for leaders?

As a leader…
_ You need people to understand what you are talking about.
_ You must take into consideration other people’s needs.
_ You need to be able to hear others opinions and ideas.
_ You need to organize and capitalize on the best ideas.
_ You need to delegate.
A good leader spend 70% of day on communicating to share vision, motivate team
members/employees, pass the information and build the relationship with other people.

Communication and Leadership
• Effective leaders are also effective communicators
• To be effective, the leader must synchronize verbal and nonverbal behavior
• Technology has had a meaningful impact on leaders’ communication and coordination
• Effective leaders are also effective communicators
• To be effective, the leader must synchronize verbal and nonverbal behavior
• Technology has had a meaningful impact on leaders’ communication and coordination

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