Lecture 24 is mainly to review what ever we covered so far during our 23
lectures. The idea was to give
you opportunities to review and refresh the topics we covered so far.
Title of our course/subject MGT 623 is “Leadership and Team Management”
We can divide this topic into two components, the Leadership and team
dynamics to understand each
component separately and ultimately understanding the subject Leadership & team
applying these concepts at workplace.
Today's effective leaders must have the capability and confidence to build and
develop focused and
motivated teams that deliver outstanding operational performance in line with
the strategic goals of the
organization. This course highlights the processes and techniques leaders have
at their disposal to
develop their effectiveness and maintain top team performance.
The course derives its roots from the basics of organizational management. In
order to build a strong
footing for learning of the concepts of leadership and team management, we need
to understand the
concepts of organization.
I tried to give basic information about organization. An Organization is
a deliberate arrangement of
people to accomplish some specific purpose or goals.
As we are discussing the leadership and team management the main focus reference
to an organization
are the people. Focusing on People: the Key to Success.
The organizational performance is judge by their profit, effectiveness and
_ An overall measure of the
quantity and quality of work performance with
resource utilization taken into account.
– Performance effectiveness
_ An output measure of task
or goal accomplishment.
– Performance efficiency
_ An input measure of the
resource costs associated with goal accomplishment.
That is the Role of Management?
Management is more concern about building working relationship with others,
help the team members
to develop the skills for better performance, providing help to develop team
work among them and
providing them with a conducive/quality environment for performance and
satisfaction. In this
connection, management should know that each individual is a value-added worker
and if they are
satisfied and motivated, organization can achieve their goals efficiently and
What is Leadership?
Concept of Leadership is very important in organizations because leaders are
the ones who make things
happen. Without leaders, an organization would find it difficult to get things
done. Leaders mostly help
others to learn – just as a coach would help players play instead of playing
himself. This lecture
introduces students to the concept of leadership and leadership effectiveness by
definitions and by emphasizing the cultural limitations of the concepts. It
presents several cultural
models that are used throughout the text to explain cross-cultural difference in
leadership. There is no
universally agreeable definition of leadership. Just go and type “leadership” on
Google and you can
find more than 186,000,000 different pages of reference on web. It involves
behaviors, beliefs and feelings of people and believes to be an important topic.
Peter Drucker the guru of Management defines Leadership as “The only definition
of a leader is
someone who has followers." While John C Maxwell defines "leadership is
influence - nothing more,
nothing less." According to John W. Gardner Leadership is “the process of
persuasion and example by
which an individual (or leadership team) induces a group to take action that is
in accord with the
leader’s purpose, or the shared purposes of all.”
Leaders are those persons who are able to influence others and who
possess managerial authority.
Leadership, then, is the ability to influence a group toward the
achievement of goals. Trust is the
foundation of leadership. Leaders develop an environment of trust where the
tend to establish a follower-ship with the leader.
• Build Teams
• Solve Problems
• Resolve Conflicts
• Manage Change
• Promote Creativity
• Build Teams
• Solve Problems
• Resolve Conflicts
• Manage Change
• Promote Creativity
Successful leaders-Challenge the process, Inspire a shared vision, Enable others
to act, Model the way,
Encourage the followers, Change agent, Take followers to the destination
Do we need leaders?
Consider how life would be different without leadership
• Service associations
Why Study Leadership?
• Understanding leadership helps organizations:
– select the right people for leadership positions
– train people in leadership positions to improve
• Who benefits?
Leaders are Effective When
o The group achieves its goals
o Internal processes are smooth
o The group can adapt to external
Why Leaders Fail?
• Insensitive, abrasive, bullying style
• Cold, aloof, arrogant
• Betrayal of personal trust
• Overly ambitious
• Specific performance problems
• Micro-managing—does not build a team
• Unable to select good subordinates
Leaders Vs Managers
– Take the long-term
– Ask what and why
– Challenge the status
– Do the right things
Have a short-term view
Ask how and when
Accept the status quo
What “Followers” Expect
• Traits desired in a leader:
– Listen and discern needs
– Honest w/themselves; Inspire trust
• Stays focused while handling a volatile situation
– One who brings out the best in me
Trust: The Foundation of Leadership
The foundations of trust are Integrity, Competence, Consistency, Loyalty and
Importance of Followers
• Followers’ actions/attitudes influence their leader
– For better or worse
• Qualities of effective followers are same ones we want in leaders
• Performance of leaders & followers are variables that depend upon one another
Follower Traits That Influence the Leadership Process are like Values Norms,
Expectations, Personality, Maturity, Competency levels, Motivation, Number of
followers, Trust and
What Followers Want
• Leaders to be Honest, Forward -Thinking, Inspiring
• Colleagues to be Honest, Cooperative, Dependable and Competent
Trait Approach: “Leaders are born, not made.” Leaders possess certain
traits that make them leaders.
Common Traits like Intelligence, Dominance, Self-confidence, High energy
level, Task relevant
Behavior Approach: There are behavioral determinants of leadership which
can be learned. People
can be trained to be effective leaders.
Contingency Approach/Theory: Effective leaders don’t use a single style;
they use many different
styles and make adjustments based on the situation. An important but
often overlooked contingency
variables is national culture
Leadership approaches/New theory:
• Transformational Leadership: Focus on influencing attitudes and
assumptions of staff.
Building commitment to the mission and objective of the organisation
• Transactional Leadership: Focus on rewards in exchange for motivation,
and effective task accomplishment
• Charismatic Leadership: Traits of a Charismatic Leader are
Self-confidence, with A
vision, Strong conviction in that vision, Out of the ordinary behavior, The
image of a
Now we will shift our focus to leader as an individual and try to understand the
personality and person
part of that individual known as “a leader”. To understand this let’s try to
start from basic personality
Personality is the pattern of relatively enduring ways in which a person
feels, thinks, and behaves.
Personality is determined by nature (biological heritage) and nurture
Organizational outcomes that have been shown to be predicted by personality
include job satisfaction,
work stress, and leadership effectiveness. Personality is not a useful predictor
outcomes when there are strong situational constraints. Because personality
tends to be stable over
time, managers should not expect to change personality in the short run. Leaders
employees’ personalities as they are and develop effective ways to deal with
people. To understand
leader we need to understand him/her as individual. For this understanding
personality indicator is very
Some Major Forces Influencing Personality:
Personality Determinants: An early argument centered on whether or not
personality was the result of
heredity or of environment. Personality appears to be a result of both
influences. Today, we recognize a
third factor—the situation.
Personality is the function of “The Person” and “The Environment. In other words
it is a Person-
Types of work-related behaviour:
Values: Values Represent Basic Convictions
• A specific mode of conduct or end-state
of existence is personally or socially preferable to
an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence.
• They have both content and intensity
• An individual’s set of values ranked in
terms of intensity is considered the person’s value
• Values have the tendency to be stable.
• Many of our values were established in
our early years from parents, teachers, friends, and
Importance of Values
_ Values lay the foundation
for the understanding of attitudes and motivation.
_ Values generally influence
attitudes and behaviors. We can predict reaction based on
Attitudes: Attitudes are evaluative statements that are either favorable
or unfavorable concerning
objects, people, or events. Attitudes are not the same as values, but the two
Main Components of Attitudes: There are three components of an attitude
• Cognitive component
_ The employee thought he
deserved the promotion (cognitive)
• Affective component
_ The employee strongly
dislikes his supervisor (affective)
• Behavioral component
_ The employee is looking
for another job (behavioral). In organizations, attitudes are
important because of the behavioral component
Continuing from previous discussion, to understand individual knowing the basis
of behavior of
individuals is very important.
Why is it important to know an individual’s values? Although Values strongly
influence a person’s
perception, attitudes and ultimately the behavior. Knowledge of an individual’s
value system can
provide insight into his/her attitudes.
Leaders should be interested in their employees’ attitudes because attitudes
give warnings of potential
problems and because they influence behavior. Satisfied and committed employees,
for instance, have
lower rates of turnover and absenteeism.
Individual Behavior-Perception: Perception is the process by which
individuals select, organize, and
interpret the input from their senses (vision, hearing, touch, smell, and taste)
to give meaning and order
to the world around them. Interpretation of a situation is known as perception.
people try to make sense of their environment and the objects, events, and other
people in it. Play major
role on the behaviors of the people.
• Perception has three components:
o The perceiver is the person
trying to interpret some observation that he or she has just
made, or the input from his or her senses.
o The target of perception is
whatever the perceiver is trying to make sense of. In
organizational behavior, we are often concerned with person perception, or
as the target of perception.
o The situation is the context
in which perception takes place.
Characteristics of all three components influence what is actually perceived
Type A and Type B Personalities: Individuals who are Type A have
an intense desire to achieve, are
extremely competitive, have a sense of urgency, are impatient, and can be
hostile. Because these individuals
are so driven, they can be difficult to get along with. These individuals,
though they have the drive to
accomplish, do not do well in situations that require a lot of interaction with
others. These individuals are
more likely to have more conflicts.. Type B individuals are more relaxed
and easygoing. Type B
characterized as easy-going, relaxed, and able to listen carefully and
communicate more precisely than
Positive Affect - an individual’s tendency to highlight the positive
aspects of oneself, other people, and
the world in general
Negative Affect - an individual’s tendency to highlight the negative
aspects of oneself, other people,
and the world in general
The Big Five Model of Personality: An impressive body of research
supports that five basic
dimensions underlie all other personality dimensions. The five basic dimensions
Extraversion. Comfort level with relationships. Extroverts tend to be
gregarious, assertive, and
sociable. Interesting in getting ahead, Leading through influencing, Individuals
are outgoing; Likes to
meet new people and willing to confront others. Introverts tend to be reserved,
timid, and quiet.
Agreeableness: Individual’s propensity to defer to others. High
warm, and trusting. Traits related to getting along with others. Characteristics
include warm, easygoing,
compassionate, friendly, and sociable. Individuals typically are sociable and
have lots of friends. Low
agreeableness people—cold, disagreeable, and antagonistic.
Conscientiousness: A measure of reliability. A high conscientious person
is responsible, organized,
dependable, and persistent. Includes traits related to achievement. Traits
include high credibility,
conformity, and organization. Individuals typically work hard and put in extra
time and effort to meet
goals. Those who score low on this dimension are easily distracted,
disorganized, and unreliable.
Emotional stability: A person’s ability to withstand stress. People with
positive emotional stability
tend to be calm, self-confident, and secure. The fine line between stable and
unstable. Stable is being
calm, good under pressure, relaxed, and secure. Unstable is nervous, poor under
Those with high negative scores tend to be nervous, anxious, depressed, and
Openness to experience: The range of interests and fascination with
novelty. Extremely open people
are creative, curious, and artistically sensitive. Trait related to being
willing to change and try new
things. Individuals typically are willing to take calculated risks. Those at the
other end of the openness
category are conventional and find comfort in the familiar.
What the MBTI? MBTI is an inventory of preferences for behavior and not a
test for identifying dysfunction or abilities. It tells you about your
preferences for orienting yourself in
the world, and for gathering information and making decisions.
Katharine Briggs & Isabel Myers, mother-daughter team
developed Jung’s types into the Myers
Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). There are four categories, each with two
sub-categories are as follows;
The 4 dimensions: Personality type dependent on 4 dimensions: It is a
100-question personality test
that asks people how they usually feel or act in particular situations.
Individuals are classified as:
1. Extroverted or introverted (E or I).
2. Sensing or intuitive (S or N).
3. Thinking or feeling (T or F).
4. Perceiving or judging (P or J).
These classifications are then combined into sixteen personality types. For
_ INTJs are visionaries.
They usually have original minds and great drive for their own ideas
and purposes. They are characterized as skeptical, critical, independent,
_ ESTJs are organizers.
They are realistic, logical, analytical, decisive, and have a natural
head for business or mechanics.
_ The ENTP type is a
conceptualizer. He or she is innovative, individualistic, versatile, and
attracted to entrepreneurial ideas. This person tends to be resourceful in
problems but may neglect routine assignments.
But also keep in your mind that each pair is of preferences for behavior. They
are not measures of
The MBTI Sub-Categories:
There are no “good” or “bad” type’s only different types. Each
preference type has a contribution to
make to effective teamwork. Each needs the opportunity to make a contribution
based upon strengths.
We understand that leadership is a process and not a position. Three components
playing important role
in this process are leader, followers and situation. In this lecture, we tried
to explain this important
component/part of leadership process.
Situation is the environment or circumstances in which an individual performs.
Following are the
factors that can influence the situation;
Situational factors influence the leadership process:
_ Size of the organization
_ Organizational life cycle
_ Social and psychological
_ Patterns of employment
_ Type, place, and purpose of
_ Culture of the organization
_ Over all environment
_ Leader-follower interaction
_ Leader-follower compatibility
_ Compatibilities within the
The organizational environment is the set of forces surrounding an organization
that have the potential
to affect the way it operates and its access to scarce resources. Basically
organization environment has
two dimensions internal and external. This can also be known as Macro and Micro
factors or even
General Environment and Task Environment. All these factors/forces do affect the
Becoming a Leader:
The leaders of a group, team or organization are the individuals
who influence others behavior. Leader
effectiveness is the extent to which a leader actually does help a group, team
or organization to achieve
its goals. Leaders are either appointed by someone external to the group and
they are elected by group
members themselves. Some people take up role of leader by using their
influences. With the passage of
time, you can see that leadership will emerge over time. The group members will
assess with in the
group that who is leader worthy. In this situation, communication style will
play a dynamic role. A
group member can become a leader if he or she has following qualities/skills;
_ Think like a leader
_ Develop your judgment
_ Build leadership traits
_ Build your power base
_ Share your vision
_ Adapt your style
_ Pick the right
_ Organize tasks properly
Three competency of a Leader: there are three competency of leader;
Leading the Organization:
Leading the organization and put the organization on right path through
setting vision, direction and
strategy. They also involve in problem solving and decision making. They keenly
prevailing politics in the organization and influence other team members.
Leaders always try to create a
change culture in the organization. For this purpose they take the risks and
innovates the new things in
the organization by enhancing business skills and knowledge.
One of the leader’s competencies is leading and managing others. In the
organization, a leader manages
the effective teams and groups for achievement of organizational objectives by
maintaining a working relationship between them. They motivate other and build
the trust on team
members. One of the major tasks of leader is to develop other, which is more
important factor. They set
a reward system in the organization and mostly link it with the performance or
achievement of goals.
This is also very important to leading one self. It is the responsibility of
the leader to adopt the changes
prevails in the environment. They also increase the self awareness for himself
that what is going on in
the surroundings of the organization. They always try to lean as more as they
can. They also develop
the culture of ethics and integrity with in the organization.
Developing adaptability, increasing self-awareness, managing yourself,
increasing capacity to learn,
exhibiting leadership stature, displaying drive and purpose, developing ethics
Leaders always know about their strengths, weakness, opportunities, challenges
and know who they are
as an individual. They also know that “Positions do not possess leadership
characteristics, only people
possess leadership characteristics.”
“Leadership is not a matter of luck. The harder you work, the luckier you are.”
1. Power: is the desire to influence, give orders, and carry them out.
2. Achievement: is the need to create/ achieve and build something of
3. Affiliation: is an interest in knowing and helping others.
Power-Oriented Leader: they strive for leadership because of the formal
authority it brings. They are
the bold and have a dominance role in the organization.
Achievement-Oriented Leader: they want to discover, create, and build
some thing. They are the
creative and innovators and always try to achieve some thing new. They are
competent, skillful and
Affiliation Leader: they have high concern for human welfare and care
about others and has a desire to
serve. They are helpful, unselfish and considerate of the well being of others.
Points to Remember:
_ An individual will
prefer one or two social motives over the others. Preference depends on cultural
values, personal traits, and experiences.
_ Leadership is exerted to
satisfy one or a combination of the three motives. Motivated by power,
achievement, or affiliation
_ Leaders and followers are
happiest in situations that allow expression of personal social motives.
We will shift now to another important topic “Power”. Does having power make a
leader? To answer
this question we need to understand basic concepts of power and its relationship
with the process of
_ Power: is the
possession of control, authority, or influence over others. (Webster’s).
power comes from the followers’ willingness to be influenced, induced, control
Sources of Leadership Power:
_ The following are the
sources of a leader’s power;
1. A leader’s authority most commonly stems from the position to which he or she
and the power to reward or punish individuals.
2. An authority in his or her field has expert power, and others do what is
asked of them out of
respect. Referent power is based on personal magnetism and charisma.
3. Formal leaders get some of their authority through their position.
4. Informal leaders get their authority through charisma.
Understanding Power: before understanding power we need to ask some
questions by our self;
1. What is power?
2. How do leaders acquire the power needed for leadership?
3. What are organizational politics?
4. How do organizational politics affect the Leadership?
CONCEPT OF POWER:
Power: is the ability of one person or group to cause another person or
group to do something they
otherwise might not have done is the principal means of directing and
controlling organizational goals
Influence: is the process of affecting the thoughts, behavior, & feelings
of another person.
Authority: is the right to influence another person formally given by the
organization. A legitimate
power is known as authority.
Principles of Power:
• Power is perceived
• Power is relative
• Power bases must be coordinated
• Power is a double-edged sword (used and abused)
Historian Lord Acton once said, “Power corrupts, and absolute power corrupts
Dependency: The Key To Power: If you want to get things done in a group
or organization, it helps to
have power. As a leader if you want to maximize your power, you will need to
dependence on you. You can, for instance, increase your power in relation to
your boss by developing
knowledge or a skill that he/she needs and for which he/she perceives no one
ready to substitute. You
will not be alone in attempting to build your power bases. Others, particularly
employees and peers,
will be seeking to make you dependent on them. The result is a continual battle.
While you seek to
maximize others’ dependence on you, you will be seeking to minimize your
dependence on others, and,
of course, others will be trying to do the same.
Forms of Power:
• Personal power
– use of personal influence of events.
– not arrogance.
• Professional power
– use of professional expertise and competence, embedded within an
make change or make a contribution.
• Positional power
– granted by the organization.
Responses of the use of power can be divided into three different behaviors. If
positional power is used
appropriately the response of followers will be compliance. While excessive
power use can create
resistance behavior. In case some one is using personal power the response is
always commitment of
followers. Same can be understood from the following figure.
The more you will move toward excessive or coercive power the more you can
How do you get power?
• Key words
Organizational Factors Which Contribute to Political Behavior
_ Low trust
_ Democratic decision making
_ High performance pressures
_ Scarcity of resources
_ Role ambiguity
_ Self-serving senior managers
_ Unclear evaluation systems
_ Zero-sum allocations
Managing Organizational Politics
_ Reduce System Uncertainty
_ Reduce Competition
_ Break Existing Political
Managing Political Behavior:
_ Maintain open
_ Clarify performance
_ Use participative management
_ Encourage cooperation among
_ Manage scarce resources well
_ Provide a supportive
What is Empowerment?
Empowerments is the process of enabling or authorizing an individual to
think, behave, take action, and
control work and decision making in autonomous ways. It is the state of feeling
self-empowered to take
control of one's own destiny. OR
Empowerment is a social action process that promotes participation of people,
communities towards the goals of increase individual and community control,
improved quality of community life and social justice.” (Wallerstein, 1992)
Why Important? Powerlessness
• Living in poverty
• Relatively low in hierarchy
• Chronic Stress
• Lack of Social Support
• Income Inequities
• Racial Discrimination
Lack of Control Over
What is Empowerment, and How Can Empower Others?
_ The power keys to
empowerment: there are two views about power keys to empowerment;
1. Traditional view: in traditional view power is relational in terms of
2. Empowerment view: In empowerment view, the emphasis is on the ability
things happen. Power is relational in terms of problems and opportunities, not
“At the organizational level, OE [organizational empowerment] refers to
organizational efforts that
generate PE [personal empowerment] among members and organizational
effectiveness needed for goal
_ Provide opportunities for
staff to be involved in organizational decision-making, program
development, and evaluation.
_ Reduce organization
hierarchies and supervisory structure so that workers have more control over
_ Encourage professional
development and team-building among staff.
_ Provide resources that
facilitate the development of political power among people.
_ Regard workers as partners
rather than subordinates.
What Is the Bottom line?
_ Appropriate employee
empowerment is essential to organizational success.
_ Everyone claims to empower
employees, but this is easier said than done.
_ A failed organizational
empowerment initiative is at best a waste of time.
Power sharing and Empowerment:
Power sharing: The delegation of power or authority to subordinates in the
wrong with this concept? Most of the times, after sharing of power or authority,
people think that,
employee misuse it and their influence on employee will reduce consequently.
Empowerment: being enabled to make independent decisions and take
Guidelines for effective employee empowerment:
• Select the right managers.
• Choose the right employees.
• Provide training.
• Offer guidance.
• Hold everyone accountable.
• Build trust.
• Share authority instead of giving it up.
• Encourage dissent.
• Give it time.
• Accept increased turnover.
• Share information.
• Realize that empowerment has its
• Focus on relationships.
• Stress organizational values.
• Transform mistakes into opportunities.
• Reward and recognize.
• Involve employees in decision-making.
Leadership and Empowerment: Empowerment involves sharing or giving power
or influence to
another. It is the process through which leaders enable and help others to gain
power and achieve
influence within the organization. When employees feel powerful they are more
willing to make
decisions and take action.
How Leaders Can Empower Others:
• A leader can involve others in
selecting their work assignments and tasks
• He creates an environment of
cooperation, information sharing, discussions, and shared ownership
• He encourages others to take initiative,
make decisions, and use their knowledge.
• He finds out what others think and let
them help design solutions.
• Leader can give others the freedom to
put their ideas and solutions into practice.
• He recognizes successes and encourages
Participative leadership: some characteristics of a participative leader;
• Begins with involving people
• Involvement leads to understanding,
which leads to commitment
• Taps the constructive power of people
• Creates a humanistic and productive
• Means understanding the views and
interests of all affected
Motivation: There are over 140 definitions of the term motivation that
have been used in various
capacities. Motivation is important because it explains why employees behave as
they do. Work
Motivation can be defined as the psychological forces within a person that
determine the direction of a
person’s behavior in an organization, a person’s level of effort, and a person’s
level of persistence in the
face of obstacles.
_ Definition: Motivation
is the result of the interaction of the individual and the situation.
Motivation is the processes that account for an individual’s intensity,
persistence of effort toward attaining a goal.
_ The process that initiates,
directs, and sustains behavior to satisfy physiological or
psychological needs or wants; the energizing and directing of behavior, the
force behind our
yearning for food, our longing for sexual intimacy, and our desire to achieve.
Sources of Motivation: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation;
Intrinsically Motivation: is behavior that is performed for its own sake;
the source of motivation is
actually performing the behavior.
a. Employees who are intrinsically motivated often remark that their work gives
them a sense of
accomplishment and achievement or that they feel they are doing something
b. Motives are intrinsic when an independent third party cannot easily verify
Extrinsic Motivation: is behavior that is performed to acquire material
or social rewards or to avoid
a. The behavior is not performed for its own sake but rather for its
b. This form of motivation may be linked to operant conditioning.
c. Motives are extrinsic when they can easily be verified by an independent
Work motivation explains why employees behave as they do. Four prominent
theories about work
motivation need theory, expectancy theory, equity theory,
and organizational justice theory
provide complementary approaches to understanding and managing motivation in
Similarly Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs also help us to understand
the employees work
behavior. Each theory answers different questions about the motivational
Work motivation can be defined as the psychological forces within a
person that determine the
direction of a person’s behavior in an organization, a person’s level of effort,
and a person’s level of
persistence in the face of obstacles.
Three Approaches to Motivation:
Individual Differences Approach: Treats motivation as a characteristic of
Job & Organization Approach: Emphasizes the design of jobs and the
Managerial Approach: Focuses on behaviors of managers, in particular,
their use of goals and rewards
What Factors Diminish
Motivation in the Workplace?
• Meaningless tasks
• Red tape
• Lack of clear goals
• Failure to set priorities
• Information overload
• No positive feedback
• Lack of autonomy
• Unpredictable change in
• Lack of recognition
• Absence of humor
• Failure to delegate
• Bureaucratic hurdles
• Interpersonal conflict
• Lack of accountability
What are Some of the Results of
Poor Motivation in the Workplace?
• Poor quality
• Lack of meaning
• Absence of pride
What are Some of the Most Powerful
Motivators in our Lives?
• Religious beliefs
• Sense of
• Cultural norms
• Chance to make a
• Opportunity to serve
• High energy level
• Perceived need for
How Can You Motivate Yourself?
_ Stick with your
_ Share your enthusiasm.
_ Hang out with high achievers.
_ Flavor tedium with pleasure.
_ Go with your strengths.
_ Make lists.
_ Stay focused on results.
_ Just do something.
How Can You Motivate Others?
_ Associate with highly
_ Set a measurable goal.
_ Make a compelling case.
_ Use emotional temptation.
_ Set a fire and keep it going.
_ Make it fun.
_ Explain how.
_ Keep doing something new and
_ Good leadership is key
_ Create a culture of trust
_ Encourage risk taking
_ Foster ownership
_ Goal-directed efforts
Applying Motivational Concepts:
_ Recognize individual
_ Match people to jobs
_ Set challenging goals
_ Encourage participation
_ Individualize rewards
_ Link rewards to performance
_ Check for equity
_ Don’t ignore money
Conditions of Leadership Motivation:
o Leadership generates
o It increases the number and kinds
o Path to the goal is clear and easily
traveled with coaching and direction
o Obstacles and roadblocks are removed
o The work itself is personally
Money as a Motivator:
_ According to Maslow and
Alderfer, pay should prove especially motivational to people who
have strong lower-level needs.
_ If pay has this capacity to
fulfill a variety of needs, then it should have good potential as a
The Role of Money:
_ They value their services
and place high value on them
_ They perceive money as symbol
of their achievement
_ They do not remain in low
_ They are very self – confident
_ Know their abilities and
Communication is one of the most important processes that take place in any
communication allows individuals, groups, teams and organizations to achieve
their goals and perform
at a high level, and it affects virtually every aspect of organizational
One of the defining features of communication is the sharing of information with
Another defining feature is reaching a common understanding.
In this case, communication is the sharing of information between two
or more individuals or groups
to reach a common understanding.
Reaching a common understanding does not mean that people have to agree
with each other.
Communication is good or effective when members of organization share
information with each other
and all parties involved are relatively clear about what information means.
Why is this important???
Effective communication is important in organizations because it affects
practically every aspect of
organizational behavior. Good communication prevents many problems from
occurring and serves as
motivation in an organization. Why it is important for leaders?
As a leader…
_ You need people to
understand what you are talking about.
_ You must take into
consideration other people’s needs.
_ You need to be able to hear
others opinions and ideas.
_ You need to organize and
capitalize on the best ideas.
_ You need to delegate.
A good leader spend 70% of day on communicating to share vision, motivate team
members/employees, pass the information and build the relationship with other
Communication and Leadership
• Effective leaders are also effective communicators
• To be effective, the leader must synchronize verbal and nonverbal behavior
• Technology has had a meaningful impact on leaders’ communication and
• Effective leaders are also effective communicators
• To be effective, the leader must synchronize verbal and nonverbal behavior
• Technology has had a meaningful impact on leaders’ communication and