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Leaders use power as a means of influencing followers and attaining group goals. Getting things done
through others. Leaders achieve goals, and power is a means of facilitating their achievement. Power is
the capacity of a leader to influence work actions or decisions.
Sources of Leadership Power:
• There are two sources of the power used by leaders:
– The power of the position
– The leader’s personal qualities

Positional Power:
Coercive Power
_ The coercive power base is being dependent on fear.
_ It rests on the application, or the threat of application, of physical sanctions such as the infliction of
pain, the generation of frustration through restriction of movement, or the controlling by force of
basic physiological or safety needs.
_ At the organizational level, A has coercive power over B if A can dismiss, suspend, or demote B,
assuming that B values his or her job.
_ Similarly, if A can assign B work activities that B finds unpleasant or treat B in a manner that B
finds embarrassing, A possesses coercive power over B.

Reward Power
_ The opposite of coercive power is reward power.
_ People comply because doing so produces positive benefits; therefore, one who can distribute
rewards that others view as valuable will have power over those others.
_ These rewards can be anything that another person values.
_ Coercive power and reward power are actually counterparts of each other.
If you can remove something of positive value from another or inflict something of negative
value upon him/her, you have coercive power over that person.
If you can give someone something of positive value or remove something of negative value,
you have reward power over that person.

Legitimate Power
_ In formal groups and organizations, the most frequent access power is one’s structural position. It
represents the power a person receives as a result of his/her position in the formal hierarchy.
_ Positions of authority include coercive and reward powers.
_ Legitimate power, however, is broader than the power to coerce and reward. It includes acceptance
of the authority of a position by members of an organization.
Person powers:
Position powers:

Person Power:
Expert Power
_ Expert power is "influence wielded as a result of expertise, special skill, or knowledge."
_ Expertise has become a powerful source of influence as the world has become more technological.
As jobs become more specialized, we become increasingly dependent on experts to achieve goals.
Referent Power
_ Its base is identification with a person who has desirable resources or personal traits. If I admire and
identify with you, you can exercise power over me because I want to please you.
_ Referent power develops out of admiration of another and a desire to be like that person; it is a lot
like charisma.
_ Referent power explains why celebrities are paid millions of dollars to endorse products in

Charismatic Power
_ Charismatic power is an intense form of referent power stemming from an individual’s personality,
physical, or other abilities that induces others to believe in and follow that person.
_ When charismatic power exists, other forms of power lose their significance because followers give
the charismatic leader the right to hold the reins of power and make the decisions that define the
vision and goals of an organization and its members.
_ Many charismatic leaders can excite a whole organization and propel it to new heights.
_ Charismatic power can have a dark side; charismatic power can be abused.
_ Some argue that charismatic power is an advantage only when a formal hierarchy of authority
places some checks on the power of this person.

The Leadership Position
Leadership is needed in all areas of society and at all levels of responsibility
• Power and responsibility come with the office of leadership
• Titles of leadership include:
– President
– Chief
– Captain
– Manager
– Director
– Supervisor
Power is important to get things done and lead the way to get the job done.

Bases of Power: following are the bases of powers;
_ Legitimate power – based on formal position of the leader
_ Reward Power – leader’s ability to deliver rewards a worker values
_ Coercive Power – deliver punishment for wrong behavior
_ Expert Power – belief in superior task knowledge of leader
_ Referent Power – Personal attractiveness of the leader

Sources of Leader Power:
_ Furniture and office arrangements
_ Prominently displayed symbols
_ Appearances of title and authority
_ Choice of clothing
_ Presence or absence of crisis

Power Cues:
_ Commanding Large Personal Space
_ Maximizing Body Size
_ Touching
_ Breaking Eye Contact
_ No Excessive Smiling
_ Avoiding Submissive Language

Being an Effective Leader:
_ First Competency- an effective leader has people waiting to join the team
_ Second Competency - a leader of commitment and focus with meaning
_ Third Competency – the management of trust
_ Fourth Competency – management of self
_ Fifth Competency: Focus on providing appropriate delegation.
_ Sixth Competency: Monitoring or update meetings
_ Seventh Competency: Develop the skill of letting others “RUN WITH THE BALL”

Asserting Leader Influence:
_ Use Rational Persuasion
_ Make People Like you
_ Develop Allies
_ Ask for What You Want
_ Extend Formal Authority with Expertise and Credibility
Using Power and Politics for Leader’s Future:
_ Use Persuasion over Coercion
_ Use Patience over Impatience
_ Be Open-Minded Rather Than Close-Minded
_ Use Compassion over Confrontation
_ Use Integrity over Dishonesty

Contrasting Leadership and Power:
Leadership Power
1. Focuses on goal achievement.
2. Requires goal compatibility with
3. Focuses influence downward.
1. Used as a means for achieving goals.
2. Requires follower dependency.
3. Used to gain lateral and upward

How do Leaders Acquire the Power Needed for Leadership?
Acquiring and using power and influence:
There are three dimensions of managerial power and
_ Downward.
_ Upward.
_ Lateral.
Effective Leaders /Managers build and maintain position power and personal power to exercise
downward, upward, and lateral influence.

Leadership Authority:
_ Views on leadership authority:

The top-down theory holds”
Leadership authority is based on position in a social hierarchy. Power flows from the highest level to
the lowest
In an organizational pyramid: Workers support managers, Managers support executives. The pyramid
serves as the basis of most classical organizational structures
_ The top-down concept is the traditional view of leadership.
_ The right of authority is derived from the right of private property.

Transfer of authority:
_ The Board appoints executives to manage the organization.
_ Executives give authority to managers and employees.

Bottom-Up View:
_ The bottom-up theory holds that Power flows from below because
people can reject a directive by saying no. Saying yes or no affirms or
denies the authority of others. This theory was first described by
Chester Barnard of AT&T

According to Barnard, an order will be accepted if four conditions are met:
1. The person understands the order what a superior gave.
2. The order is consistent with the organization’s goals.
3. The person believes that the order is compatible with his/her interests and he can do what the
superior says.
4. The person is mentally and physically able to comply with order.

Leaders must make sure that:
a. Directives fall within their subordinates’ zones of acceptance.
b. If not, orders may be met with resistance and even hostility.

Top-Down vs. Bottom-Up
Both views have merit that by accepting employment, employees should acknowledge, the
authority of Leaders is to make decisions and give orders, the employee’s duty is to comply and
obey the orders.

How do Leaders Acquire the Power Needed for Leadership?
Building personal power by:
_ Building expertise.
Leader can build expertise by getting advanced training and education, participation in
professional associations, and project involvement.
_ Learning political know-how.
Leader may learn the ways to negotiate, persuade, and understand goals and means that others
_ Enhancing likeability.
Through Pleasant personality characteristics, agreeable behavior patterns, and attractive
personal appearance, he may acquire the power.

Leaders increase the visibility of their job performance by:
a. Expanding contacts with senior people and making a strong network of strong/professional people
with in and out side the organization.
b. Making oral presentations of written work.
c. Participating in problem-solving task forces and involve in decision making.
d. Sending out notices of accomplishment to the top management.
e. Seeking opportunities to increase name recognition.

Servant Leadership:
Servant leadership is a calling to serve and is an approach to leadership development.It begins with
caring for and wanting to help others. All great leaders are servants first.

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