LEADERSHIP POWER INFLUENCE
LEADERSHIP POWER & INFLUENCE
Leaders use power as a means of influencing followers and attaining group
goals. Getting things done
through others. Leaders achieve goals, and power is a means of facilitating
their achievement. Power is
the capacity of a leader to influence work actions or decisions.
Sources of Leadership Power:
• There are two sources of the power used by leaders:
– The power of the position
– The leader’s personal qualities
_ The coercive power base is
being dependent on fear.
_ It rests on the application,
or the threat of application, of physical sanctions such as the infliction of
pain, the generation of frustration through restriction of movement, or the
controlling by force of
basic physiological or safety needs.
_ At the organizational level, A
has coercive power over B if A can dismiss, suspend, or demote B,
assuming that B values his or her job.
_ Similarly, if A can assign B
work activities that B finds unpleasant or treat B in a manner that B
finds embarrassing, A possesses coercive power over B.
_ The opposite of coercive
power is reward power.
_ People comply because doing so
produces positive benefits; therefore, one who can distribute
rewards that others view as valuable will have power over those others.
_ These rewards can be anything
that another person values.
_ Coercive power and reward
power are actually counterparts of each other.
If you can remove something of positive value from another or inflict something
value upon him/her, you have coercive power over that person.
If you can give someone something of positive value or remove something of
you have reward power over that person.
_ In formal groups and
organizations, the most frequent access power is one’s structural position. It
represents the power a person receives as a result of his/her position in the
_ Positions of authority include
coercive and reward powers.
_ Legitimate power, however, is
broader than the power to coerce and reward. It includes acceptance
of the authority of a position by members of an organization.
_ Expert power is
"influence wielded as a result of expertise, special skill, or knowledge."
_ Expertise has become a
powerful source of influence as the world has become more technological.
As jobs become more specialized, we become increasingly dependent on experts to
_ Its base is identification
with a person who has desirable resources or personal traits. If I admire and
identify with you, you can exercise power over me because I want to please you.
_ Referent power develops out of
admiration of another and a desire to be like that person; it is a lot
_ Referent power explains why
celebrities are paid millions of dollars to endorse products in
_ Charismatic power is an
intense form of referent power stemming from an individual’s personality,
physical, or other abilities that induces others to believe in and follow that
_ When charismatic power exists,
other forms of power lose their significance because followers give
the charismatic leader the right to hold the reins of power and make the
decisions that define the
vision and goals of an organization and its members.
_ Many charismatic leaders can
excite a whole organization and propel it to new heights.
_ Charismatic power can have a
dark side; charismatic power can be abused.
_ Some argue that charismatic
power is an advantage only when a formal hierarchy of authority
places some checks on the power of this person.
The Leadership Position
Leadership is needed in all areas of society and at all levels of
• Power and responsibility come with the office of leadership
• Titles of leadership include:
Power is important to get things done and lead the way to get the job done.
Bases of Power: following are the bases of powers;
_ Legitimate power –
based on formal position of the leader
_ Reward Power – leader’s
ability to deliver rewards a worker values
_ Coercive Power –
deliver punishment for wrong behavior
_ Expert Power – belief
in superior task knowledge of leader
_ Referent Power –
Personal attractiveness of the leader
Sources of Leader Power:
_ Furniture and office
_ Prominently displayed symbols
_ Appearances of title and
_ Choice of clothing
_ Presence or absence of crisis
_ Commanding Large Personal
_ Maximizing Body Size
_ Breaking Eye Contact
_ No Excessive Smiling
_ Avoiding Submissive Language
Being an Effective Leader:
_ First Competency-
an effective leader has people waiting to join the team
_ Second Competency - a
leader of commitment and focus with meaning
_ Third Competency – the
management of trust
_ Fourth Competency –
management of self
_ Fifth Competency: Focus
on providing appropriate delegation.
_ Sixth Competency:
Monitoring or update meetings
_ Seventh Competency:
Develop the skill of letting others “RUN WITH THE BALL”
Asserting Leader Influence:
_ Use Rational Persuasion
_ Make People Like you
_ Develop Allies
_ Ask for What You Want
_ Extend Formal Authority with
Expertise and Credibility
Using Power and Politics for Leader’s Future:
_ Use Persuasion over
_ Use Patience over Impatience
_ Be Open-Minded Rather Than
_ Use Compassion over
_ Use Integrity over Dishonesty
Contrasting Leadership and Power:
1. Focuses on goal achievement.
2. Requires goal compatibility with
3. Focuses influence downward.
1. Used as a means for achieving goals.
2. Requires follower dependency.
3. Used to gain lateral and upward
How do Leaders Acquire the Power Needed for Leadership?
Acquiring and using power and influence: There are three dimensions of
managerial power and
Effective Leaders /Managers build and maintain position power and personal power
downward, upward, and lateral influence.
_ Views on leadership
The top-down theory holds”
Leadership authority is based on position in a social hierarchy. Power flows
from the highest level to
In an organizational pyramid: Workers support managers, Managers support
executives. The pyramid
serves as the basis of most classical organizational structures
_ The top-down concept is the
traditional view of leadership.
_ The right of authority is
derived from the right of private property.
Transfer of authority:
_ The Board appoints
executives to manage the organization.
_ Executives give authority to
managers and employees.
_ The bottom-up theory holds
that Power flows from below because
people can reject a directive by saying no. Saying yes or no affirms or
denies the authority of others. This theory was first described by
Chester Barnard of AT&T
According to Barnard, an order will be accepted if four conditions are met:
1. The person understands the order what a superior gave.
2. The order is consistent with the organization’s goals.
3. The person believes that the order is compatible with his/her interests and
he can do what the
4. The person is mentally and physically able to comply with order.
Leaders must make sure that:
a. Directives fall within their subordinates’ zones of acceptance.
b. If not, orders may be met with resistance and even hostility.
Top-Down vs. Bottom-Up
Both views have merit that by accepting employment, employees should
authority of Leaders is to make decisions and give orders, the employee’s duty
is to comply and
obey the orders.
How do Leaders Acquire the Power Needed for Leadership?
Building personal power by:
_ Building expertise.
Leader can build expertise by getting advanced training and education,
professional associations, and project involvement.
_ Learning political know-how.
Leader may learn the ways to negotiate, persuade, and understand goals and means
_ Enhancing likeability.
Through Pleasant personality characteristics, agreeable behavior patterns,
personal appearance, he may acquire the power.
Leaders increase the visibility of their job performance by:
a. Expanding contacts with senior people and making a strong network of
with in and out side the organization.
b. Making oral presentations of written work.
c. Participating in problem-solving task forces and involve in decision making.
d. Sending out notices of accomplishment to the top management.
e. Seeking opportunities to increase name recognition.
Servant leadership is a calling to serve and is an approach to leadership
development.It begins with
caring for and wanting to help others. All great leaders are servants first.