BIG FIVE MODEL MYERS BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR
BIG FIVE MODEL, MYERS BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR (MBTI)
Continuing from previous lectures, we are still at personality part of
individuals. One can ask question
is Personality Stable? Behavior is a function of the situation and the
person in the situation
People’s personalities can be described in a variety of ways.1). Personality
is the pattern of relatively
enduring ways in which a person feels, thinks, and behaves. 2). Personality is
an important factor in
accounting for why employees act the way they do in organizations and why they
have favorable or
unfavorable attitudes toward their jobs and organizations.
Behavioral and social-cognitive theories: Reciprocal determinism: the person,
the person’s behavior,
and the environment all influence one another. Organizational Culture, Values,
beliefs, attitudes and
assumptions put into Action through behavior. To understand it better, we
need discuss other models on
The Big Five Model of Personality: An impressive body of research
supports that five basic
dimensions underlie all other personality dimensions. The five basic dimensions
Extraversion: Comfort level with relationships. Extroverts tend to be
gregarious, assertive, and
sociable. Interesting in getting ahead, Leading through influencing, Individuals
are outgoing; Likes to
meet new people and willing to confront others. Introverts tend to be reserved,
timid, and quiet.
Agreeableness: Individual’s propensity to defer to others. High
warm, and trusting. Traits related to getting along with others. Characteristics
include warm, easygoing,
compassionate, friendly, and sociable. Individuals typically are sociable and
have lots of friends. Low
agreeableness people—cold, disagreeable, and antagonistic.
Conscientiousness: A measure of reliability. A high conscientious person
is responsible, organized,
dependable, and persistent. Includes traits related to achievement. Traits
include high credibility,
conformity, and organization. Individuals typically work hard and put in extra
time and effort to meet
goals. Those who score low on this dimension are easily distracted,
disorganized, and unreliable.
Emotional stability: A person’s ability to withstand stress. People with
positive emotional stability
tend to be calm, self-confident, and secure. The fine line between stable and
unstable. Stable is being
calm, good under pressure, relaxed, and secure. Unstable is nervous, poor under
Those with high negative scores tend to be nervous, anxious, depressed, and
Openness to experience: The range of interests and fascination with
novelty. Extremely open people
are creative, curious, and artistically sensitive. Trait related to being
willing to change and try new
things. Individuals typically are willing to take calculated risks. Those at the
other end of the openness
category are conventional and find comfort in the familiar.
What the MBTI? MBTI is an inventory of preferences for behavior and not a
test for identifying dysfunction or abilities. It tells you about your
preferences for orienting yourself in
the world, and for gathering information and making decisions.
Katharine Briggs & Isabel Myers, mother-daughter team
developed Jung’s types into the Myers
Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). There are four categories, each with two
sub-categories are as follows;
The 4 dimensions: Personality type dependent on 4 dimensions: It is a
100-question personality test
that asks people how they usually feel or act in particular situations.
Individuals are classified as:
1. Extroverted or introverted (E or I).
2. Sensing or intuitive (S or N).
3. Thinking or feeling (T or F).
4. Perceiving or judging (P or J).
These classifications are then combined into sixteen personality types. For
INTJs are visionaries.
They usually have original minds and great drive for their own ideas
and purposes. They are characterized as skeptical, critical, independent,
ESTJs are organizers.
They are realistic, logical, analytical, decisive, and have a natural
head for business or mechanics.
The ENTP type is a
conceptualizer. He or she is innovative, individualistic, versatile, and
attracted to entrepreneurial ideas. This person tends to be resourceful in
problems but may neglect routine assignments.
But also keep in your mind that each pair is of preferences for behavior. They
are not measures of
• 1920’s – Carl Jung posits
that there are underlying personality types
• 1940’s – Katharine Briggs and
Isabel Briggs Myers build on Jung’s work and create the MBTI
• 1970’s – Serious work to link MBTI
types to careers, love matches, etc.
• Today – MBTI widely used in
educational, corporate settings
Jung’s Core Idea in Psychological Types: When your mind is active, one of
two mental activities is
Perceiving - taking in
Judging - organizing
that information & reaching conclusions
The MBTI Sub-Categories:
• Focus Attention:
Extraversion - direct & receive energy from outer world
Introversion - direct & receive energy from inner
• Take in Data:
Sensing - data from the five senses
iNtuition - data from perception of meaning;
• Make Decisions:
Thinking - logical, objective, analytical approach
Feeling - value-centered, subjective (likes &
• Orientation to Outer World:
Judging - live ordered, structured, planned lives
Perceiving - flexible, spontaneous orientation
MBTI Applications in Organizations:
• Management/career development
• Interpersonal communications skills
• Decision making/problem solving styles
• Management/leadership styles
• Organizational change
• Handling Diversity
• Conflict management
The Extraverted person directs and receives
energy from the outside world.
The Introverted person directs and receives
energy from the inner world.
prefers action over reflection prefers reflection over action
prefers oral communication prefers written communication
shares thoughts freely guards thoughts until they are (almost) perfect
acts and responds quickly reflects and thinks deeply
enjoys working in groups enjoys working alone or with only one or two
With a group Alone
Talks first Thinks first
The Sensing person prefers to gather
information in a precise and exact manner.
The iNtuitive person prefers to gather
information in an inspired or novel manner.
Likes specific examples Likes general concepts
Prefers following an agenda Departs from the agenda if necessary
Emphasizes the practical Emphasizes the theoretical
Seeks predictability Desires change
Sees difficulties as problems
that need specific solutions
Sees difficulties as opportunities
for further exploration
Focuses on immediate applications of a
Focuses on future possibilities
of a situation
Wants to know what is Wants to know what could be
5 Senses “6th Sense”
A Thinking person seeks general truths and
objectivity when making decisions.
A Feeling person seeks individual and
interpersonal harmony when making decisions.
questions first accepts first
knows when reason is needed knows when support is needed
wants things to be logical Wants things to be pleasant
remains detached when making decisions remains personally involved when making
controls the expression of feelings expresses feeling with enthusiasm
overlooks people in favor of tasks overlooks tasks in favor of people
The Judging person likes to come to closure
and act on a decision.
The Perceiving person prefers to remain open
and adapt to new information.
Likes things to be settled and ordered Likes things to be flexible and open
Finishes tasks before the deadline Finishes tasks at the deadline
Focuses on goals, results, and achievements Focuses on processes, options, and
Establishes deadlines Dislikes deadlines
Prefers no surprises Enjoys surprises
Quickly commits to plans or decisions Reserves the right to change plans or
Judgers Spontaneous /Perceiver
The MBTI Sub-Categories:
There are no “good” or “bad” type’s only different types. Each
preference type has a contribution to
make to effective teamwork. Each needs the opportunity to make a contribution
based upon strengths.