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Continuing from previous lectures, we are still at personality part of individuals. One can ask question

is Personality Stable? Behavior is a function of the situation and the person in the situation
People’s personalities can be described in a variety of ways.1). Personality is the pattern of relatively
enduring ways in which a person feels, thinks, and behaves. 2). Personality is an important factor in
accounting for why employees act the way they do in organizations and why they have favorable or
unfavorable attitudes toward their jobs and organizations.
Behavioral and social-cognitive theories: Reciprocal determinism: the person, the person’s behavior,
and the environment all influence one another. Organizational Culture, Values, beliefs, attitudes and
assumptions put into Action through behavior. To understand it better, we need discuss other models on
this subject. The Big Five Model of Personality: An impressive body of research supports that five basic
dimensions underlie all other personality dimensions. The five basic dimensions are:

Extraversion: Comfort level with relationships. Extroverts tend to be gregarious, assertive, and
sociable. Interesting in getting ahead, Leading through influencing, Individuals are outgoing; Likes to
meet new people and willing to confront others. Introverts tend to be reserved, timid, and quiet.

Agreeableness: Individual’s propensity to defer to others. High agreeableness people—cooperative,
warm, and trusting. Traits related to getting along with others. Characteristics include warm, easygoing,
compassionate, friendly, and sociable. Individuals typically are sociable and have lots of friends. Low
agreeableness people—cold, disagreeable, and antagonistic.

Conscientiousness: A measure of reliability. A high conscientious person is responsible, organized,
dependable, and persistent. Includes traits related to achievement. Traits include high credibility,
conformity, and organization. Individuals typically work hard and put in extra time and effort to meet
goals. Those who score low on this dimension are easily distracted, disorganized, and unreliable.

Emotional stability: A person’s ability to withstand stress. People with positive emotional stability
tend to be calm, self-confident, and secure. The fine line between stable and unstable. Stable is being
calm, good under pressure, relaxed, and secure. Unstable is nervous, poor under pressure, insecure.
Those with high negative scores tend to be nervous, anxious, depressed, and insecure.

Openness to experience: The range of interests and fascination with novelty. Extremely open people
are creative, curious, and artistically sensitive. Trait related to being willing to change and try new
things. Individuals typically are willing to take calculated risks. Those at the other end of the openness
category are conventional and find comfort in the familiar.

What the MBTI? MBTI is an inventory of preferences for behavior and not a diagnostic psychological
test for identifying dysfunction or abilities. It tells you about your preferences for orienting yourself in
the world, and for gathering information and making decisions.

Katharine Briggs & Isabel Myers, mother-daughter team developed Jung’s types into the Myers
Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). There are four categories, each with two sub-categories are as follows;

The 4 dimensions: Personality type dependent on 4 dimensions: It is a 100-question personality test
that asks people how they usually feel or act in particular situations. Individuals are classified as:
1. Extroverted or introverted (E or I).
2. Sensing or intuitive (S or N).
3. Thinking or feeling (T or F).
4. Perceiving or judging (P or J).
These classifications are then combined into sixteen personality types. For example:
􀂃 INTJs are visionaries. They usually have original minds and great drive for their own ideas
and purposes. They are characterized as skeptical, critical, independent, determined, and
often stubborn.
􀂃 ESTJs are organizers. They are realistic, logical, analytical, decisive, and have a natural
head for business or mechanics.
􀂃 The ENTP type is a conceptualizer. He or she is innovative, individualistic, versatile, and
attracted to entrepreneurial ideas. This person tends to be resourceful in solving challenging
problems but may neglect routine assignments.
But also keep in your mind that each pair is of preferences for behavior. They are not measures of

1920’s – Carl Jung posits that there are underlying personality types
1940’s – Katharine Briggs and Isabel Briggs Myers build on Jung’s work and create the MBTI
1970’s – Serious work to link MBTI types to careers, love matches, etc.
Today – MBTI widely used in educational, corporate settings

Jung’s Core Idea in Psychological Types: When your mind is active, one of two mental activities is
􀂃 Perceiving - taking in information
􀂃 Judging - organizing that information & reaching conclusions
The MBTI Sub-Categories:
􀂃 Extraversion -------------------- Introversion
􀂃 Sensing ---------------------------- iNtuition
􀂃 Thinking ---------------------------- Feeling
􀂃 Judging --------------------------- Perceiving
Sub-Categories Defined
Focus Attention:
Extraversion - direct & receive energy from outer world
Introversion - direct & receive energy from inner world
Take in Data:
Sensing - data from the five senses
iNtuition - data from perception of meaning; gut-feeling
Make Decisions:
Thinking - logical, objective, analytical approach
Feeling - value-centered, subjective (likes & dislikes)
Orientation to Outer World:
Judging - live ordered, structured, planned lives
Perceiving - flexible, spontaneous orientation

MBTI Applications in Organizations:
Management/career development
Interpersonal communications skills
Decision making/problem solving styles
Management/leadership styles
Organizational change
Handling Diversity
Conflict management

Extraversion Introversion
The Extraverted person directs and receives
energy from the outside world.
The Introverted person directs and receives
energy from the inner world.
prefers action over reflection prefers reflection over action
prefers oral communication prefers written communication
shares thoughts freely guards thoughts until they are (almost) perfect
acts and responds quickly reflects and thinks deeply
enjoys working in groups enjoys working alone or with only one or two

Energy Source:
Extravert Introvert
Talkative Meditative
Open Reserved
External Internal
With a group Alone
Talks first Thinks first

Information Gathering:
Sensing iNtuition
The Sensing person prefers to gather
information in a precise and exact manner.
The iNtuitive person prefers to gather
information in an inspired or novel manner.
Likes specific examples Likes general concepts
Prefers following an agenda Departs from the agenda if necessary
Emphasizes the practical Emphasizes the theoretical
Seeks predictability Desires change
Sees difficulties as problems
that need specific solutions
Sees difficulties as opportunities
for further exploration
Focuses on immediate applications of a
Focuses on future possibilities
of a situation Wants to know what is Wants to know what could be
Information Gathering
Sensors Intuitors
Facts Possibilities
Present Future
Tangible Abstract
Practical Imaginative
5 Senses “6th Sense”

Decision Making:
Thinking Feeling
A Thinking person seeks general truths and
objectivity when making decisions.
A Feeling person seeks individual and
interpersonal harmony when making decisions.
questions first accepts first
knows when reason is needed knows when support is needed
wants things to be logical Wants things to be pleasant
remains detached when making decisions remains personally involved when making
controls the expression of feelings expresses feeling with enthusiasm
overlooks people in favor of tasks overlooks tasks in favor of people

Decision Making
Thinkers Feelers
Objective Subjective
Impersonal Interpersonal
Justice Mercy
Why Who
Head Heart

Judging Perceiving..
The Judging person likes to come to closure
and act on a decision.
The Perceiving person prefers to remain open
and adapt to new information.
Likes things to be settled and ordered Likes things to be flexible and open
Finishes tasks before the deadline Finishes tasks at the deadline
Focuses on goals, results, and achievements Focuses on processes, options, and openings
Establishes deadlines Dislikes deadlines
Prefers no surprises Enjoys surprises
Quickly commits to plans or decisions Reserves the right to change plans or decisions

Life Style:
Judgers Spontaneous /Perceiver
Decisive Curious
Definite Optional
Deadline Guideline
Closure Open-ended
Now Later

The MBTI Sub-Categories:
_ Extraversion -------------------- Introversion

_ Sensing ---------------------------- iNtuition

_ Thinking ---------------------------- Feeling

_ Judging --------------------------- Perceiving

There are no “good” or “bad” type’s only different types. Each preference type has a contribution to
make to effective teamwork. Each needs the opportunity to make a contribution based upon strengths.

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