PEOPLE AND THEIR BEHAVIOR
After studying this chapter, students should be able to understand:
A. Concepts of people working together
B. Organizations and human behavior
As we discussed in the earlier lectures that human resource management is the
management of human as
important resources of organization. Each human is different from one another.
This difference is due to
the difference of behavior of each employee. In order to manage the humans well,
managers need to know
the behavior of people in order to take the best out of them. Today we will be
discussing some basic
concepts of the Organizational Behavior. We will have detail discussion on individual
behaviors and the
factors influencing the individual behavior.
A. Concepts of people working together
Why to work in organizations?
People can be more productive when working in groups than when working alone.
What Managers can do
and what Managers cannot
do while managing people,
organizations and society is the myths of management.
Basic purpose of the working or existence of
• Link individuals into relationships
• Allocate the tasks to fulfill the objective
• Allocate authority to perform individual tasks
• Coordinate the objectives and activities of separate
• Facilitate the flow of work
• OB is concerned specifically with the actions of
people at work. Managers need to develop their interpersonal or people skills
if they are going to be
effective in their jobs. Organizational behavior (OB) is a field of study that
investigates the impact that
individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within an organization, and
then applies that
knowledge to make organizations work more effectively. Specifically, OB focuses
on how to improve
productivity, reduce absenteeism and turnover, and increase employee citizenship
and job satisfaction.
We all hold generalizations about the behavior of people. Some of our generalizations
valid insights into human behavior, but many are erroneous. Organizational behavior
study to improve predictions of behavior that would be made from intuition alone.
Yet, because people
are different, we need to look at OB in a contingency framework, using situational
moderate cause-effect relationships.
• OB addresses some issues that are not obvious, such as informal elements.
It offers both challenges and
opportunities for managers. It recognizes differences and helps managers to see
the value of workforce
diversity and practices that may need to change when managing in different situation
and countries. It
can help improve quality and employee productivity by showing managers how to
people as well as how to design and implement change programs. It offers specific
insights to improve
a manager’s people skills. In times of rapid and ongoing change, faced by most
managers today, OB can
help managers cope in a world of “temporariness” and learn ways to stimulate
innovation. Finally, OB
can offer managers guidance in creating an ethically healthy work environment.
Focus of Organizational Behavior
OB looks at individual behavior, which includes personality, perception, learning,
and motivation. It is also
concerned with group behaviors specifically in areas of norms roles, team building,
The Goals of Organizational Behavior
1. The emphasis will be on employee productivity, reduce absenteeism, and turnover.
2. Organizational citizenship—a fourth type of behavior becoming important in
3. Attitudes are evaluative statements—favorable or unfavorable—concerning objects,
people, or events.
4. An attitude is made-up of three components:
cognition, affect, and behavior.
5. The cognitive component consists of a
person’s beliefs, opinions, knowledge, and
information held by a person.
6. The affective component of an attitude is the
emotional, or feeling, segment of an attitude.
7. The behavioral component of an attitude
refers to an intention to behave in a certain
8. The three most important job-related
attitudes are job satisfaction, job involvement,
and organizational commitment.
Contribution of OB to effectiveness of
Wouldn’t a Manager’s job be easier if he or she could explain and predict behavior?
This is the focus of
organizational behavior (OB), the study of the actions of people at work. The
goal of OB is to explain and
predict behavior of employees at work.
OB focuses on both individual behavior and
group behavior. Managers must understand
behavior in both the formal and informal
components of an organization. Managers are
particularly concerned with three types of
employee behaviors: productivity, absenteeism,
and turnover. A fourth type of behavior,
organizational citizenship, is emerging as a vital
Managers must also be attentive to employee
attitudes. Attitudes are value statements, either
favorable or unfavorable, concerning people,
events, or objects. Attitudes of special interest to managers pertain to those
related to job satisfaction, job
involvement, and organizational commitment. Can you think of ways in which your
(values) have impact on your behavior at work?
Sometimes an individual experiences an inconsistency between two or more attitudes
or between behavior
and attitudes. Are happy workers productive workers? The answer to this question
is not as simple as it
might appear. Review the relationship between employee happiness and productivity
and see what you
think. Many researchers now believe that managers should direct their attention
primarily to what might
help employees become more productive.
Five specific personality traits have proven most powerful in explaining individual
organizations. These are locus of control, Machiavellians, self-esteem, self-monitoring,
and risk propensity.
Review these traits so you can be prepared to predict practical work-related
Sometimes different people will hear or witnesses the same situations yet interpret
them differently. This
happens because of differences in perception. Perception is the process of organizing
sensory impressions in order to give meaning to the environment. Managers need
to recognize that
employees react to perceptions, not to reality (if there is such a thing as “reality”).
Thus, managers must pay
• Work group
• Personal life
• Skills & abilities
B = f(P,E)
close attention to how employees perceive both their jobs and management practices.
We constantly learn from our experiences. Sometimes we learn from rewards and
punishments that are a
consequence of our behavior. We learn to behave in order to get something we
want or to avoid something
we do not want. This is called operative conditioning. An extension of operant
conditioning is social
learning theory. Social learning theory emphasizes that we can learn through
observation as well as direct
experience. Managers can influence an employees learning through the rewards
they allocate and the
examples they set. Does this advice seem equally applicable to parenting?
The behavior of individuals in groups is not the same as the sum total of all
of the individuals’ behavior.
Individuals often act differently in groups than when they are alone. This means
that managers must also
understand the elements of group behavior. This chapter describes the basic concepts
of group behavior.
It is clear that the ability to understand and predict employee behavior is a
powerful tool for managers. To
illustrate, a movie director must often “get into the mindset” of characters
in a script. Understanding a
character’s perceptions and motivation can help the director guide actors toward
performance. Managers, too, can serve as a guide and coach, helping employees
meet organizational goals.
B. Organizations and human behavior
Variables Influencing the Individual Human Behaviors:
In simple word behavior is the function of Person and Environment in which he/she
The following two factors mainly influence the individual behaviors…
1. The Persons
2. The Environment of the Organization
The PersonsNo single measure of individual
differences can provide a complete understanding of
an individual or predict all the behaviors of an
individual. It is therefore more useful to consider a
variety of differences that explain aspects of
employee behavior. These can be
• Skills & Abilities
Skills & Abilities:
Mental and physical capacities to perform various tasks. This comes from knowledge,
Research has shown five major dimensions to be
consistent components of personality. The Big Five
personality dimensions are conscientiousness,
extroversion/introversion, and openness to experience,
emotional stability, and agreeableness.
Conscientiousness - defined as being reliable and
dependable, being careful and organized, and being a
person who plans - is the dimension most strongly
correlated to job performance.
Extroversion/introversion refers to the degree to which
a person is sociable, talkative, assertive, active, and
ambitious. Openness to experience is the degree to
which someone is imaginative, broad-minded, curious, and seeks new experiences.
Emotional stability is the
degree to which someone is anxious, depressed, angry, and insecure. Agreeableness
refers to the degree to
which a person is courteous, likable, good-natured, and flexible. Managers must
remember that the
relevance of any personality dimension depends on the situation, the type of
job, and the level at which a
person is working.
Four personality traits that have been consistently related to work-related behavior
are locus of control,
Type-A behavior, self-monitoring, and Machiavellianism. Locus of control indicates
an individual's sense of
control over his/her life, the environment, and external events. Those with an
internal locus of control
believe that their actions affect what happens to them, while those with an external
locus of control believe
that outside factors affect what happens to them. People who exhibit Type-A behavior
try to do more in
less and less time in an apparently tireless pursuit of everything. Type-A people
feel great time urgency, are
very competitive, try to do many things at once, and are hostile.
Self-monitoring, the fourth personality trait is the degree to which people are
capable of reading and using
cues from the environment to determine their own behavior. Strong self-monitoring
skills can help
managers and employees read environmental and individual cues quickly and accurately
and adjust behavior
accordingly. People with elements of a Machiavellian personality put self-interest
above the group's interests
and manipulate others for personal gain.
We use the mental process of perception to pay attention selectively to some
stimuli and cues in our
environment. There are two types of perception. Social perception process is
the process of gathering,
selecting, and interpreting information about how we view themselves and others.
In contrast, physical
perception focuses on gathering and interpreting information about physical objects
rather than people.
Closure permits us to interpret a stimulus by filling in missing information
based on our experiences and
Attitudes are comprised of feelings, beliefs, and behaviors. One important work-related
attitude is job
satisfaction, the general attitude that people have toward their jobs. Main five
factors contribute to job
satisfaction: pay; the job itself; promotion opportunities; the supervisor; and
relations with co-workers. The
relationship between job satisfaction and work performance is complex and influenced
organizational and personal factors. Managers have more influence over job satisfaction
than any other
individual difference discussed in this chapter.
Values are long-lasting beliefs about what is important, worthwhile, and desirable.
A person's value system
is the way he/she organizes and prioritizes values. Terminal values are goals
for behavior or for a certain
result that someone wants to achieve. Instrumental values are the means—the instruments—that
believe they should use to attain their goals. Cultural values can affect personal
valuesETHICS. A key
work-related value is the employee's ethics. Those who hold a relativist's view
of ethics believe that what is
right or wrong depends on the situation or culture. Those with a Universalist’s
view believe that ethical
standards should be applied consistently in all situations and cultures. Value
conflict occurs when there is
disagreement among values that an individual holds or between individual and
organizational values. To
avoid value conflict, managers should work toward integrating and fitting the
values of different employees
with the values of the organization.
The Environment Of Organization
• Work group
• Personal life
Inside the organization, the work group or the relationship between the group
members can affect the
individual behavior. Organizational culture can also have impact on the individual
Cultural values indicate what a cultural group considers important, worthwhile,
and desirable. People share
the values of their culture, which form the basis for individual value systems
composed of terminal values
and instrumental values. A key work-related value is a person's ethics. Value
systems affect ethical behavior
in organizations. Managers must be most concerned with interpersonal and person-organization
conflicts. Interpersonal value conflicts occur when two or more people have opposing
values, which can
prevent co-workers from working together effectively. Person-organization value
conflicts occur when
someone's values conflict with the organization's culture, causing frustration
and possibly disrupting
The factors that influence job satisfaction are pay; the job itself; promotion
opportunities; supervisors; and
co-workers. The link between job satisfaction and work performance is complex
and influenced by multiple
organizational and personal factors. The link appears to be stronger for professionals
than for employees at
higher organizational levels.
The Basic OB Model
The basic OB model suggests study of the organization at
following three levels:
The purpose of understanding organizations from all three
levels (individual, group, and organization) is to develop a
well-rounded view that will prepare us for the challenges that managers face
in today's business
environment. Focusing on the individual level allows us to understand individual
motivation, and learning. Focusing on the group level shows us how more than
two people can work
together in groups or teams within an organization. Focusing on the organization
level allows us to see the
effects of the organizational environment, technology, strategy, structure, and
Organizational Behavior: OB is concerned specifically with the actions
of people at work
Cognitive component: The cognitive component consists of a person’s
knowledge, and information held by a person.
Skills & Abilities: Mental and physical capacities to perform various
tasks. This comes from
knowledge, learning, and experiences.
Personality: The unique combination of psychological traits that describes
OR behaviors or trends that influence other people.
Perceptions: Perception is the mental process to pay attention selectively
stimuli and cues in our environment.
Attitudes: Attitudes are comprised of feelings, beliefs, and behaviors.
Values: Basic convictions about what is right and wrong.
Ethics: Rules and principles that define right and wrong conduct.