In this lecture we will learn to:
•Apply the communication process to oral communication
•Summarize the skills involved in being an effective
•Identify nine common types of business interviews
Facing a communication dilemma at Rockport:
•Calling a meeting isn’t unusual; executives do it every
•Even so, few executives shut down an entire company to
bring everyone to a meeting, but
that’s exactly what Rockport president John Thorbeck decided
•Rockport is a footwear subsidiary of Reebok, and except for
the handful of people left
behind to answer telephones in the company’s headquarters,
all 350 managers and
employees were asked to gather in a huge room for a two-day
•Rockport’s John Thorbeck knows that speaking and listening
are the communication skills
we use the most.
•Given a choice, people would rather talk to each other than
write to each other.
•Talking takes less time and needs no composing, typing,
rewriting, retyping, duplicating, or
•By communicating with facial expressions, eye contact, tone
of voice, gestures and
posture, people can send subtle messages that add another
dimension to the spoken
•Oral communication satisfies people’s need to be part of
the human community and makes
them feel good.
•Talking things over helps people in organizations build
morale and establish a group
•When communicating orally, try to take advantage of the
positive characteristics while
minimizing the dangers.•To achieve that goal, work on
improving two key skills:
•Organize your thoughts in a logical way, decide on a style
that suits the occasion, and edit
your remarks mentally.
•As you speak, watch the other person, judging from verbal
and nonverbal feedback
whether your message is making the desired impression.
•If not, revise and try again.
•Just as various writing assignments call for different
writing styles, various situations call for
different speaking styles.
•Your speaking style depends on the level of intimacy
between you and the other person
and on the nature of your conversation.
•When you’re talking with a friend, you naturally speak more
frankly than when you’re talking
to your boss or a stranger.
•An important tool of oral communication, the telephone, can
extend your reach across town
and around the world.
•However if your telephone skills are lacking, you may waste
valuable time and appear rude.
•You can minimize your time on the telephone while raising
your phone productivity by
delivering one-way information by fax.
•Other ways of increasing your phone productivity by
–jotting down an agenda before making a call
–saving social chitchat for the end of a call
–saving up all the short calls you need to make to one
person during a given day and simply
making one longer call
–sending your message by fax, if you cant reach someone by
–making sure you’re your assistant has a list of people
whose calls you’ll accept even if
you’re in a meeting.
•If you’re typical, you spend over half your communication
•Listening supports effective relationships within the
organization, enhances the
organization’s delivery of products, alerts the organization
to the innovations growing from
both internal and external forces, and allows the
organization to manage the growing
diversity both in the workface and in the customers it
What happens when you listen:
The three types of listening:
•Various situations call for different listening skills.
•The three types of listening differ not only in purpose but
also in the amount of feedback or
interaction that occurs.
•The goal of
content listening is to
understand and retain information imparted by a
•You may ask questions, but basically information flows form
the speaker to you.
•Your job is to identify the key points for the message, so
be sure to listen for clues to its
How to be a better listener:
•Regardless of whether the situation calls for content,
critical, or active listening, you can
improve your listening ability by becoming more aware of the
habits that distinguish good
listeners from bad.
•In addition, put nonverbal skills to work as you listen:
–Maintain eye contact
–React responsively with head nods or spoken signals
–Pay attention to the speaker’s body language
•You might even test yourself from time to time: when
someone is talking, ask yourself
whether you’re actually listening to the speaker or mentally
rehearsing how you’ll respond.
•Above all, try to be open to the information that will lead
to higher-quality decisions, and try
to accept the feeling that will build understanding and
•If you do, you’ll be well on the way to becoming a good
listener – an important quality when
conducting business interviews.
Good and bad listening:
Conducting interviews on the job:
•The conversation bounces back and forth from interviewer to
•Although the interviewer guides the conversation, the
interviewee may also seek to
accomplish a purpose, perhaps to :
–obtain or provide information,
–solve a problem
Takes fewer notes; uses four to
five different systems,
depending on the speaker.
Takes extensive notes using
only one system
5. Be flexible
Listens 4. Listen for ideas Listens for facts for central
Doesn’t judge until
comprehension is complete;
interrupts only to clarify
3. Hold your fire Tends to enter into argument
Judges content; skips over
2. Judge content, not Tunes out if delivery is poor
Opportunizes; ask “What’s in
it for me”
1. Find areas of interest Tunes out dry subjects
To listen effectively The Bad Listener The Good Listener
Tends to daydream with slow
10. Capitalize on the fact that
thought is faster than speech
Interprets emotional words;
does not get hung up on
9. Keep your mind open Reacts to emotional words
Uses heavier material as
exercise for the mind
Resists difficult expository
material; seeks light,
8. Exercise your mind
Fights or avoids distractions;
tolerates bad habits; knows
how to concentrate
7. Resist distractions Is distracted easily
Works hard; exhibits active
Shows no energy output;
6. Work at listening
To listen effectively The Bad Listener The Good Listener
–to create goodwill
–persuade the other person to take action.