In this lecture we will learn:
•How to construct
•The table is one of the most versatile and widely used
•Tables are used so often because they can help writers
achieve several common
•For example they are an excellent tool for groups of
detailed facts in a concise and
How to construct a table:
•To create a table, you systematically arrange information
in rows and columns.
•You should adjust the basic structure as needed to crate an
attractive visual aid that your
readers will find easy to use.
•For example, if your table is crowded you can separate
columns (or groups of columns)
with vertical lines, and to help them read across rows, you
can place horizontal or leave a
blank row after every five lines or so.
•Note that fancier variations of the basic design may be
used where attractiveness is
especially important, as in advertising brochures and annual
reports to stockholders.
•When deciding how to display your information within the
framework of your table, you have
several basic decisions to make:
–How to order the rows and columns
–Which labels to use for the columns and which for the rows
–How to align entries in the columns
–Where to place special notes
•Like a table, a bar graph can represent numerical
quantities, which is done using rectangles
•The greater the quantity, the longer the bar.
•Some uses of bar graphs are as follow:
–To compare quantities at a glance
–To show trends
–To indicate the composition of a whole
How to construct a bar graph:
•Begin by drawing your axes so that your graph will be
•Along one axis place tick marks at regular intervals to
indicate quantities ($5 million, $10
million etc.; 50 psi, 100 psi, etc.)
•Plan the tick marks so that the longest bar will extend
nearly to the end of its parallel axis.
How to avoid misleading your readers:
•A common mistake that results in accidentally misleading
the readers is to omit the zero
point on the axis that shows the quantity.
•If you simply cannot use the entire quantity scale,
indicate that fact to your readers,
perhaps by using hash marks to signal a break in the
quantity axis in the bars themselves.
•Pictographs are a special kind of bar graph in which the
bars are replaced by drawings that
represent the thing being described.
•The chief advantage of the pictograph is that it uses
drawings to symbolize concretely the
quantities you are talking about in your graph.
•You will find pictographs especially useful where you want
to do one or both of the
–Emphasize the practical consequences of the data
–Make your data visually interesting and memorable.
How to create a pictograph:
•The procedure for creating a pictograph is nearly identical
to that for creating a bar graph
•The difference is that you draw pictures instead of
rectangles to represent quantities.
How to avoid misleading your readers:
•Like bar graphs, pictographs can mislead the reader if they
are not drawn properly.
•When using pictographs, you can avoid misleading your
readers if you keep all of your
pictures the same size and use more of them to represent
•A line graph shows how one quantity changes as a function
changes in another quantity.
•You can use line graphs in many ways, including the
trends and cycles: When you want
to show a pattern of change over time, line
graphs can be very helpful – especially when compared with a
compare trends: Line graphs are
also very useful for showing readers how two or more
trends compare with one another.–To
show how two or more variables interact:
are well-suited to to display interactions between
How to create a line graph:
•In line graphs, you generally show how variation in one
thing (called the
affected by variation in another thing (the
•Line graphs almost always show the dependent variable on
the vertical axis and the
independent variable on the horizontal one.
•Time is usually treated as an independent variable so it
goes on the horizontal axis.
•Mark off each axis at regular intervals, using labeled tick
•In some situations however, your readers may find it easier
to read your line graph if you
extend the tick marks all the way across the graph to form a
•If you do this, make the grid with a thinner line than you
use to represent the quantities you
are describing, so that your data stands out.
•Pie charts are unsurpassed in their ability to depict the
composition of a whole.
•For example, to show how much each of several food sources
contributes to the total
amount of dietary fat consumed by the average American.
How to create a pie chart:
•To create a pie chart, you draw a circle and draw lines
that slice it into wedges.
•Each wedge occupies a portion of the circle’s circumference
proportional to the amount of
the total pie that the wedge represents.
•Arrange the wedges in a way that helps your audience
determine the rank order of the
wedges and compare the relative sizes of particular wedges.
•With a photograph, you can show your readers exactly what
they would see if they
personally were to look at an object.
•Photographs can help you achieve a variety of communication
purposes such as:
the appearance of something the readers have never seen:
This could include a
new product, or the inside of the human heart etc.
the condition of something: For
example result of a skin treatment etc.
the readers recognize something:
For example in a lab manual you might include
photographs that would enable your readers to identify the
imperfections they might
encounter in sheet steel.
your audience find something: For
example you could show parts of a machinery
in an instructional manual.
•A diagram is much like a drawing except that drawings
accurately convey the actual
appearance of things, diagrams depict subjects more
•Diagrams can convey complex information, such as the system
used for industrial
processing of fruits, without actually showing the actual
How to create a diagram:
•Decide exactly what you want to show.
•Create an appropriate means to represent your subject with
geometric shapes, or perhaps
sketches that suggest their appearance.
•Provide the explanations people need in order to understand
your diagram as a separate
key, in the title or as part of the diagram itself.
•Flow charts are an excellent means of representing the
succession of events in a process
•The simplest flow charts use rectangles, circles, diamonds,
or other geometric shapes to
represent events, and arrows to show the progress from one
event to another.
How to create a flow chart:
•A few conventions govern the creation of flow charts.
•The labels that identify the activities are placed
the boxes that represent those
•Boxes are arranged so that activity flows from left to
right, or from top to bottom, or both.
•An organizational chart uses rectangles and lines to
represent the arrangement of people
and departments in an organization.
•It reveals the organization’s hierarchy, indicating how the
smaller units are combined to
create larger units.
•It also indicates who reports to whom and who gives
direction to whom.
How to create an organizational chart:
•Because of the hierarchical nature of most business
organizations, organizational charts
are usually pyramidal.
•You do not need to show every part of the organization,
only those relevant to your readers.
•Sometimes you may need to represent more than one kind of
relationship by using different
lines for the different relationships.
•A schedule chart identifies the major steps in a project
and tells when they will be
•They are often used in project proposals to show the
proposer’s plan of work.
•You can also use schedule charts in progress reports to
show what you have accomplished
and what you have left to do.
How to create a schedule chart:
•One of the principal considerations in creating a schedule
chart is deciding how much detail
to include, which depends on the audience’s needs and
•Tasks are always listed along the vertical axis, with
indentation used to distinguish subtasks
from major tasks.
•Intervals (weeks, months) are usually marked off with
vertical lines to help the readers.
•A budget statement is a table that shows how money will be
gained or spent.
•It may be very simple or very elaborate depending on your
•On the job, you can use budget statements in the following
–To explain the expenses involved with a project purchase
–To summarize the savings to be realized by following a
recommendation you are making
–To report the costs that have been incurred by a project
for which you have responsibility
–To explain the sources of revenue associated with some project or