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Review and Wrap-Up

Today’s Goal:

(Review & Wrap-Up)

• To review some of the interesting ideas that we discussed over the last 44 lectures
• Please note that this lectures is not a comprehensive review, just a sampler!

Course Objectives

Progression of Computer Technology

1. Mechanical computing
2. Electro-mechanical
3. Vacuum tube
4. Transistor
(the current state-of the-art)
5. Quantum computing

Quantum Computers

• Quantum computers may one day be millions of times more efficient than the current state-of-theart
computers …
• as their quantum mechanical nature will allow them to examine all possible answers to a question,

The World Wide Web

• A huge resource of info
• Logically unified, but physically distributed
To build an appreciation for the fundamental concepts in
To become familiar with popular PC productivity software
To achieve a beginners proficiency in Web page development

• It is unlike any previous human invention:
– It is a world-wide resource, important to all and shared by all of the people in the world

The Semantic Web

Whereas, today’s Web’s content is designed for humans to read; the Semantic Web’s content will be
designed for computers to understand meaningfully
Internet: Network of Networks
• A large number of networks, interconnected physically
• Capable of communicating and sharing data with each other
• From the user’s point view, Internet – a collection of interconnected networks – looks like a single,
unified network

Language of the Internet: TCP/IP

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
• TCP breaks down the message to be sent over the Internet into packets
• IP routes these packets through the Internet to get them to their destination
• When the packets reach the destination computer, TCP reassembles them into the original message

Instant Messaging

• eMail: Slow response times
• eMail: No way of knowing if the person we are sending eMail to is there to read it
• eMail: The process of having a conversation through eMail by exchanging several short messages
is too cumbersome
• Instant messaging (IM) solves these problems

On-Chip Cache Memory

• That small amount of memory located on the same chip as the uP
• The uP stores a copy of frequently used data and instructions in its cache memory
• When the uP desires to look at a piece of data, it checks in the cache first. If it is not there, only
then the uP gets it from the main memory
• Its proximity to the uP makes access times short

Ways of Enhancing A uP

• Increase the clock frequency
• Increase the word-width
• Add more functional units (e.g. ALU’s, FPU’s, Vector/SIMD units, etc.)

The Role of An OS

• Manages the HW and SW resources of the computer system, often invisibly. These include the
processor, memory, disk drives, etc.
• Provides a simple, consistent way for applications to interact with the HW without having to know
all the details of the HW

Who Owns Software?

• Generally, although a piece of SW that is being used by millions, it is not owned by any of them!
• When we buy a SW package, we do not really buy it – we just buy a license that allows us to use it,
the ownership stays with the maker

4th-generation languages

Operating System
Device Driver
System software
Application software

Machine languages


Immediate response, but execute code slowly


Compiling takes time, but super-fast execution


1st Definition:
Sequence of steps that is taken to solve a problem
Better Definition:
precise sequence of a limited number of unambiguous, executable steps that terminates in
the form of a

Pseudo Code

• Quite suitable for SW development as it is closer in form to real code
• One can write the pseudo code, then use it as a starting point or outline for writing real code
• Many developers write the pseudo code first and then incrementally convert each line into real


Common sense Lesson drawn from experience
(Artificial) Intelligent Systems
SW programs or SW/HW systems designed to perform
complex tasks employing strategies that mimic
some aspect of human thought

Not a Suitable Hammer for All Nails!

the nature of computations required in a task is not well understood

there are too many exceptions to the rules

known algorithms are too complex or inefficient

artificial intelligent systems have the potential of offering an acceptable solution


• A collection of data organized in such a fashion that the computer can quickly search for a desired
data item
• All data items in it are generally related to each other and share a single domain

Relational Databases

• Databases consisting of two or more related tables are called relational databases
• A relational database stores all its data inside tables, and nowhere else
• All operations on data are done on those tables or those that are generated by table operations

Future Trends:

On-Demand Computing Power

• Almost infinite “computing power” supply
• Reliable, maintenance-free, just like the electricity, telephone, or water-supply service
• No capital expenditure; you pay for only what you use!
• Same will be true for storage

Future Trends: Immortal Minds

• Some day it will be possible to load all the lectures, papers, books and SW produced by an expert
into an intelligent system
• After that system processes, indexes and restructures the info in those artifacts, it will be possible
to have a conversation in plain English (or some other language) with that system

Distances Are Contracting!

Distances Are Increasing!

• Because of the ever-decreasing costs of verbal, text, video communications, it is becoming easier to
stay in touch of anyone, regardless of their physical location
• Solitude is the order of the day as many children & adults spend their free time surfing, chatting,
playing computer games, instead of spending it on interacting with friends or family

Computers may Become too Powerful!

• Computers keep on becoming more and more powerful, gaining more and more autonomy
• They are being equipped with fail-safe and self-healing technologies
• Are we heading towards a future where the role of the masters and the slaves will be reversed?

Why JavaScript?

• HTML is great for static Web pages; however, supports only rudimentary interactivity through
forms and hyperlinks
• JavaScript can be used (along with HTML) to develop interactive content for the Web

Some of things that JavaScript cannot do!

• The following file ops. on the client computer:
–Read -- Modify
–Rename -- Delete
• Create graphics (although, it does have the ability to format pages through HTML - including the
placement of graphics)
• Any network programming bar one function: the ability to download a file to the browser specified
through an arbitrary URL

Advantages of Client-Side Scripting

• Reduced server load as it does not have to send messages to the user’s browser about missing or
incorrect data
• Reduced network traffic as the form’s data is sent only once instead of many to’s and fro’s


: A named collection of properties (data, state) & methods (instructions, behavior)


• A named group of statements that is put together once and then used (by reference) repeatedly on a
Web page
• Code becomes easier to read, understand and maintain

Local and Global Variables

Local or Function-level Variable
Effective only in the function in which they are declared
Global Variables
Visible everywhere on the Web page

Image Preloading

• The Image object can be used to download an image into the cache before it is actually needed for
• This technique can be used to create smooth animations or to display one of several images based
on the requirement

Productivity SW

• The lectures and assignments were designed to give a brief introduction, and no more
• All we desired was for you to become able to open the package and perform some trivial tasks
• With time, you will find more and more use for these packages, and gradually develop an expertise
that later will become very useful in your career

Course Objectives

1. To build an appreciation for the fundamental concepts in computing
2. To achieve a
beginners proficiency in Web page development
3. To become
familiar with popular PC productivity software
• How successful were we in helping you achieve those objectives?
• Please do let us know so that we can modify the future offerings of this course accordingly. I will
be most grateful
• I have enjoyed doing this course with you very much
• Hope it was enjoyable & useful for you as well

********************THE END*******************

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